Рекомендуем:Почему я выбрал профессую экономиста
Почему одни успешнее, чем другие
Периферийные устройства ЭВМ
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки)
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate. 1) Anorexia nervosa (to mean) "nervous loss of appetite"
1) Anorexia nervosa (to mean) "nervous loss of appetite".
2) Bulimia (“bous”-ox, “limous”-hunger) nervosa first (to enter) the English language in the late 1970s.
3) Eating disorders (to associate) with unstable or troubled family relationships.
4) Anorexia (to be) a serious eating disorder that (to affect) women and men of all ages.
5) Many people with anorexia nervosa (to see) themselves as overweight, even when they (to be) clearly underweight.
6) In 1689, an English physician Richard Morton (to describe) two cases of anorexia.
7) The medical facts of anorexia nervosa (to document) since the 1870s.
8) Anorexia nervosa (to be) a well-known disease for psychologists and other medical professionals since 1870s.
*Exercise 12. What kind of eating disorder does Maria have? Give reasons for your decision. Do you know people with anorexia or bulimia? How can you describe those cases?
Seventeen-year-old Maria has been on one diet or another since she was in junior high. She lost 10 pounds after becoming a strict vegetarian. Her parents are concerned about the weight loss, but Maria insists that she’s just under stress at school. Meanwhile, her vegetarian diet is becoming stricter by the day.
Maria obsessively counts calories, measures food portions, and weighs herself at least twice a day. She refuses to eat at restaurants, in the school cafeteria, or anywhere else in public, and she lives on salad dressed with vinegar, rice cakes, and sugar-free Jello.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Compound [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] - (хімічна) сполука
Essential [ɪˈsɛnʃ(ə)l] - необхідний
Soluble [ˈsɒljʊb(ə)l] - розчинний
To dissolve [dɪˈzɒlv] - розчиняти(ся)
Soil - грунт
Vitamin deficiency - авітаміноз
Scurvy [ˈskəːvi] - цинга
Blindness [ˈblaɪndnɪs] - сліпота
Rickets [ˈrɪkɪts] - рахіт
Physical capabilities - фізичні можливості
Fatigue [fəˈtiːɡ] - втома
Tearfulness [ˈtɪəfʊlnɪs] - плаксивість
Anxiety [æŋˈzaɪəti] - тривога, занепокоєння
Poisoning [ˈpɔɪzənɪŋ] - отруєння, інтоксикація
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Calcium [ˈkælsiəm], chromium [ˈkrəʊmɪəm], copper [ˈkɒpə], iodine [ˈʌɪədiːn; ˈaɪədaɪn], selenium [sɪˈliːnɪəm], zinc [zɪŋk], magnesium [maɡˈniːzɪəm], phosphorus [ˈfɒsf(ə)rəs], guarantee [gærənˈtiː], deficiency [dɪˈfɪʃənsɪ], deformity [dɪˈfɔːmɪti], caries [ˈkeəriːz], paranoia [ˌparəˈnɔɪə]
Exercise 3. Read the following word-combinations, translate them and pay attention to the
Possible use of the keywordsVitamin: vitamin deficiency, vitamin poisoning, B-complex vitamins, rich in vitamin C, to store vitamins in the body, the daily amount of vitamins;Deficiency: calcium deficiency, deficiency in vitamin C, deficiencies in a number of vitamins and minerals, to result from vitamin deficiency, to prevent micronutrients deficiency
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
organic compounds, very small amounts, to support normal physiologic function, fat soluble and water soluble, to dissolve in water, be stored in the body, inorganic elements, absorbed by plants, to result from vitamin deficiency, the main sources of vitamin C, the bleeding gums, to become blind, soft, weak bones, to lead to skeletal deformities, to protect bones against fractures, to prevent dental caries, to affect the mental health
Exercise 5. Read the text. Translate it. Write out into three columns the names of minerals,
The names of symptoms, and the names of diseases
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts for supporting normal physiologic function.
Vitamins fall into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins — A, D, E, and K — dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin (vitamin B3), riboflavin (vitamin B2), and folic acid or folate (vitamin B9)) — need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of this, your body can't store these vitamins. So you need a fresh supply of these vitamins every day.
Whereas vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals. Your body needs larger amounts of some minerals (macro-elements), such as calcium, to grow and stay healthy. Other minerals like chromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc are called microelements because you only need very small amounts of them each day.
Vitamins and minerals are often called micronutrients because your body needs only tiny amounts of them. But lack of even those small quantities virtually guarantees disease. Here are a few examples of diseases that can result from vitamin deficiency:
- Scurvy. Old-time sailors learned that living for months without fresh fruits and vegetables – the main sources of vitamin C – causes the bleeding gums and weakness.
- Blindness. In some developing countries, people still become blind from vitamin A deficiency.
- Rickets. A deficiency in vitamin D can cause rickets, a condition marked by soft, weak bones that can lead to skeletal deformities.
Just as a lack of key micronutrients can cause substantial harm to your body, getting sufficient quantities can provide a substantial benefit. Some examples of these benefits:
- Strong bones. A combination of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, and phosphorus protects your bones against fractures.
- Healthy teeth. The mineral fluoride not only helps bone formation but also prevent dental caries.
It is important to remember that vitamin and mineral deficiencies can negatively affect not only your physical capabilities but also your mental health. Deficiencies in a number of vitamins and minerals can lead to the symptoms of depression, paranoia, anxiety, fatigue, and tearfulness. But it is also important to remember that high doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.