Exercise 11. Fill in the table comparing short-term memory and long-term memory
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Exercise 11. Fill in the table comparing short-term memory and long-term memory




  short-term memory long-term memory
capacity    
duration    
type of encoding    

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів

1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову, складіть з ними речення

кодування, зберігання і використання інформації

фізичні та хімічні подразники

втрата пам’яті

короткотривала і довготривала пам’ять

обмежений об’єм пам’яті

2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання

What stages does memory include?

What three types of sensory memory are there?

How is loss of memory called in common use and as a medical disorder?

What are the characteristics of short-term memory?

3) Поясніть термін (не менше 5-ти речень)

Пам’ять

Сенсорна пам’ять

 

PERSONALITY. PERSONALITY THEORIES

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary

wear (wore, worn) [weər] - носити

to imply [ɪm’plaɪ] - мати на увазі

consistency - постійність, сталість

predominant - домінуючий

needs - потреби

cheerful['tʃɪərfəl] - веселий, життєрадісний

gloomy - похмурий

violent [’vaɪələnt] - жорстокий

calm [kɑ:m] - спокійний

trait [treɪt] - риса

to obscure[əb’skjʋr] - затінювати

demand [dɪ'mænd] - вимога

extent - ступінь, міра

at will - за власним бажанням

predict - передбачити

to contribute (to)[kən’trɪbju:t] - сприяти

foresight ['fɔ:r‚saɪt] - передбачення

anticipation [æn‚tɪsə'peɪʃən] - передчуття

sociability [ ˌsəuʃɪˈbɪlɪtɪ ] - комунікабельність

affectivity [ əfek’tɪvɪtɪ ] - емоційність

Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly

Characteristic [‚kærɪktə'rɪstɪk], distinguish [dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ], stimuli [ˈstɪmjulaɪ], desire [dɪ’zaɪə], sanguine ['sæŋwɪn], melancholic [melən’koʊlic], choleric [ˈkɒlərɪk], phlegmatic [fleɡˈmætɪk ], initiate [ɪ'nɪʃɪ‚eɪt]

Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian

a pattern of characteristic thoughts and feelings, to persist over time and situations, to predict human reactions to other people, to change from day to day, person’s responses to different stimuli, typical modes of expressing needs and feelings, the description of four temperaments, personality traits, to affect behavior, the biological basis of personality, to be responsible for foresight and anticipation, processing visual information, to depend on the volume of the brain cortex

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences in the Passive. Use them in the Past

1) An emotion is initiated by certain perception and stimulated by the situation.

2) Personality traits can be used to classify people.

3) The choleric temperament is traditionally associated with fire.

4) The title character of Hamlet by William Shakespeare is self-described as melancholic.

5) In Waldorf education and anthroposophy, the temperaments are used to help understand personality.

6) Most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment.

Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to name and characterize the main characteristics of

Personality

PERSONALITY

Personality is that pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguishes one person from another and that persists over time and situations.

The Latin term “persona” means “actor’s face mask”. In a sense, one’s personality is the “mask” worn as a person moves from situation to situation during a lifetime.

Personality also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress. There is still no universal consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology.

At a general level, the concept of personality has a number of characteristics relatively stable across time.

The first characteristic of personality implies that a person’s behavior should show some degree of consistency that distinguishes them from person’s responses to different stimuli. Though people change from day to day, from year to year – with age and experience, they remain more or less what they are.

The second characteristic of personality is that the behaviours should distinguish the person from others. People differ in their predominant desires, in their characteristic feelings, and in their typical modes of expressing needs and feelings. In the 5th century B.C. Hippocrates gave the description of four temperaments: sanguine (cheerful and active), melancholic (gloomy), choleric (angry and violent), and phlegmatic (calm and passive).

The specific attributes of a person are called personality traits. A trait is any characteristic in which one person differs from another. Every trait can be used to classify people. A person’s personality may be described in terms of a particular combination of traits.

The third characteristic of personality is that person’s behavioral consistency may be obscured by demands of the situations. Two different situations may produce radically different effect in person. Both individual differences and situations affect behavior to some extent.

A response of a person to a situation is an emotion. An emotion is not an independent element which comes and goes at will. It is initiated by certain perception and stimulated by the situation.

The fourth characteristic of personality lies in impossibility to accurately predict an individual’s behavior on the specific occasion from a single measure of personality.

The biological basis of personality is the theory that anatomical structures located in the brain contribute to personality traits. For instance, in human beings, frontal lobes are responsible for foresight and anticipation, and the occipital lobes are responsible for processing visual information. In addition, certain physiological functions such as hormone secretion also affect personality. For example, the hormone testosterone is important for sociability, affectivity, aggressiveness, and sexuality. Additionally, studies show that the expression of a personality trait depends on the volume of the brain cortex.

 





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