Рекомендуем:Почему я выбрал профессую экономиста
Почему одни успешнее, чем другие
Периферийные устройства ЭВМ
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки)
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
The physical health effects, to affect the brain, to cause improvement in reaction, mood enhancing and calming effect, the amount of nicotine in the bloodstream, mood change, nicotine withdrawal, the withdrawal symptoms, the feeling of euphoria, performance enhancement, craving for nicotine, to quit smoking, the psychological desire for cigarettes, the physical addiction, to feel calm, to act as a stimulant, to light up a cigarette, to overcome the physical addiction
Exercise 4. Translate. Pay attention to the use and meaning of Participles
1) The psychological effects of smoking are directly linked to nicotine effects on the brain.
2) Smokers say cigarettes are mood enhancing and have a calming effect.
3) Smoking leads to lack of oxygen reaching skin cells.
4) The changes to physical appearance and the serious skin conditions associated with smoking may help motivate individuals to quit smoking.
5) Women’s skin is more affectedby tobacco smoke exposure than men’s skin.
6) Smoking has a calming, rather than stimulating, effect.
Exercise 5. Read the text
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SMOKING
While the physical health effects of smoking are well known the psychological effects are rarely discussed.
In large part, the psychological effects of smoking are directly linked to how nicotine physically affects the brain. Early cigarette use can cause improvement in reaction because nicotine is a psychomotor stimulant. Even though this improved skill does not last long, smokers claim the enhancement from cigarettes.
Smokers also claim that cigarettes are mood enhancing or have a calming effect. There is research that shows smoking may indeed have a calming, rather than stimulating, effect depending on the amount of nicotine in the bloodstream.
It has also been shown that the impression of mood change can be due to short-term nicotine withdrawal. Such withdrawal can happen any time a smoker goes without cigarettes longer than they are used to, such as when they sleep. Withdrawal symptoms include craving for nicotine, anger and irritability, anxiety, depression, impatience, trouble sleeping, hunger, gain of weight, and difficulty concentration. Thus, the first cigarette of the day stops the withdrawal symptoms, causing the smoker to feel calmer.
The feelings of euphoria and calm with the perceptions of performance enhancement are at the root of psychological addiction to cigarettes. When a person tries to quit smoking, the physical addiction is usually overcome within fourteen days. However, the psychological desire for cigarettes can last for years.
This is because smokers often see cigarettes as a cure-all. When under stress, inhalation of nicotine can enable the smoker to feel calm. When tired, cigarettes can act as a stimulant to wake the smoker up. When a smoker was bored, they would light up a cigarette as well.
Because of the combined effect of these psychological factors, smokers who try to quit often find that even after they have overcome the physical addiction they still need help. Many people turn to acupuncture, hypnotherapy, or support groups for assistance in dealing with the psychological dependence on cigarettes.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions
1) How can smoking affect the smoker’s reaction?
2) What different effects can smoking have?
3) What is nicotine withdrawal?
4) What are the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal?
5) What is the root of psychological addiction to cigarettes?
6) Why do smokers see cigarettes as a cure-all?
7) Why do ex-smokers need help after overcoming the physical addiction?
8) What approaches help ex-smokers cope with psychological dependence on cigarettes?