Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate. 1) If inputs (to be) useful, they (to pass) to long-term memory


Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate. 1) If inputs (to be) useful, they (to pass) to long-term memory

1) If inputs (to be) useful, they (to pass) to long-term memory.

2) Attention (to remain) a major area of investigation within education, psychology, and neuroscience.

3) Cognitive processes (to analyze) by many scientists.

4) We (to finish) our research work yet.

5) Our brain (to receive and process) a lot of information from our senses.

6) In the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas (Фома Аквинський) (to divide) the study of behavior into two categories: cognitive (how we know the world), and affective (how we understand the world via feelings and emotions).

7) Visual perception (to be) the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that (to contain) in visible light.

8) Cognition (to include) attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems and making decisions.

9) Next Tuesday, we (to attend) a lecture on visual perception.


Exercise 13. Tell what type of thinking you have got. Give the examples to prove it

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів

1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову, складіть з ними речення

ввід, обробка і вихід інформації

накопичення і відбір інформації

виділення характерних ознак

акт запам’ятовування

попередній досвід

вільний потік думок

2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання

What do cognitive processes include?

What is called selective attention?

What kind of thinking is used for solving problems?

What kind of thinking is characterized by free flow of thoughts through the mind?

3) Поясніть термін (не менше 5-ти речень)

Когнітивні процеси





Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary

retrieval[ rɪtri:v(ə)l ]-відновлення

to encode - кодувати

to maintain [ meɪnˈteɪn ] - утримувати

recall - нагадування

recollection - спогад

forgetfulness [fər’getfəlnɪs] - забудькуватість

to decay[dɪ'keɪ] - згасати, руйнуватися

database ['deɪtə‚beɪs] - база даних

capacity [kə'pæsətɪ] - об’єм

to a lesser extent - меншою мірою

duration - тривалість

life span - тривалість життя

consolidation - закріплення


Exercise 2. Read the following word-combinations, translate them and pay attention to the possible use of keywords

Memory:active memory, associative memory, long-term memory, genetic memory, to control memory, loss of memory;

Information: much information,received information, to encode information, to recall information, to retrieve information, information desk, information technologies, information database;

Code: alphabetic code, acoustic code, semantic code, Morse code, web-site code; Code of ethics, Code of Honour, criminal code

Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian

to encode, store, and retrieve information; chemical and physical stimuli; the formation and retrieval of memory; received information; a permanent record of the encoded information; to be out of cognitive control; an automatic response; is a fast decaying store of information; visual information; auditory information; a database for touch stimuli; a strictly limited capacity and duration; an acoustic code for storing information; to store much larger quantities of information; the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory

Exercise 4. a) Write the comparative and superlative, translate

large, quickly, difficult, much, heavy, expensive, thin, little, small, funny, comfortable, far, cheap, heavy, few

B) Translate

менше часу, найдорожче обладнання, вищий рівень, більше інформації, найкращий хірург, сильніший подразник (стимул), найдовший день року, менше роботи, найцікавіша інформація, більш швидка реакція, довший період, найхолодніша зима

Exercise 5. Read the text and be ready to name and characterize the main stages of memory as a process


In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. It is the first stage. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally, the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness.

So, there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:

· Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information

· Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information

· Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information for use in a process or activity

The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness, as a medical disorder, amnesia.

Sensory memory holds sensory information for a few seconds or less. It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response.

There are three types of sensory memories. Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information, a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image. Echoic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory information, another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds. Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory that represents a database for touch stimuli.

Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute. Its capacity is also very limited. Short-term memory relies mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code.

The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally has a strictly limited capacity and duration. By contrast, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for the potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). Its capacity is extremely large. While short-term memory encodes information acoustically, long-term memory encodes it semantically.

The hypothalamus is essential (for learning new information) to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory. Without the hippocampus, new memories are unable to be stored into long-term memory.

Physical exercise, particularly continuous aerobic exercises such as running, cycling and swimming, has many cognitive benefits and effects on the brain.


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