Рекомендуем:Почему я выбрал профессую экономиста
Почему одни успешнее, чем другие
Периферийные устройства ЭВМ
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки)
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
1) Haptic perception is the ability to recognize object through touch.
2) A stimulus can be measured by its size, its duration, its intensity, its wavelength.
3) The brain receives information from the senses.
4) Stimuli from the environment are transformed into neural signals.
5) Aristotle postulated that the two most basic tastes were sweet and bitter.
6) People have five commonly recognized senses.
7) The vibration of the air is called sound waves.
8) Animals may possess senses that are absent in humans.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
1) The human visual system (to involve) communication between the eye and the brain.
2) In 2010, researchers (to find) bitter taste receptors in lung tissue.
3) A hearing test (to perform) by an audiometer.
4) Many types of sense loss (to occur) due to ineffective receptors, nerve damage or cerebral impairment.
5) Tomorrow I (to check up) my vision.
6) The inability to see (to call) blindness.
7) The traditional “five senses” model - sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste – (to create) by Aristotle.
Exercise 12. Tell about the forms of sensory perception using the text and your plan
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Обробка чуттєвої інформації
зір і слух
смак і нюх
тактильне сприйняття і дотик
здатність сприймати звуки
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
1) What main sensory systems are there?
2) What five senses are traditionally recognized?
3) What kind of sensory information does vision provide?
4) How do people perceive sounds?
5) Which senses are known as the chemical senses?
3) Поясніть термін
Форми чуттєвого сприйняття
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
cognition - пізнання
storage ['stɔ:rɪdʒ] - зберігання, накопичення
decision [ dɪˈsɪʒən ] - рішення
input - ввід (інформація на вході)
processing - обробка (інформації)
output - вихід
ability - здатність, властивість
feature ['fi:tʃər] - характерна ознака
extraction - виділення
to file - подати
to distinguish [dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ] - розрізняти
instant - мить
to retrieve [rɪ'tri:v] - поновити (восстановить, извлечь)
attempt - спроба, намагання
imagery [ʹımıdʒ(ə)rı] - образність
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Make up word-combinations with the words in bold type
conscious ['kɔn∫əs], language [’læŋgwɪdʒ], behavior [bɪ’heɪvjə(r)], perhaps [pər'hæps], unless [ʌn'les], previous [’pri:vɪəs], experience [ɪk'spɪərɪəns], thought [Ɵɔ:t]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
to use knowledge, attention and memory, to understand language, to solve problems, to make decisions, human behaviour, information processing, the ability to choose, the selected information, storage of inputs, to register information, the act of remembering, short-term memory, long-term memory, useless information, to create new information with thinking, previous experience, systematic and logical thinking, free flow of thoughts through the mind
Exercise 4. A) Translate. Pay attention to the sentences in Passive
1) The process by which a person can selectively pick out one message from a mixture of messages is called selective attention.
2) The continuing storage of information is termed long-time memory.
3) All selected information is registered in the brain.
4) Cognitive processes are studied by philosophy, psychology, sociology.
5) The stored information can be retrieved from memory whenever it is needed.
B) Change sentences into Passive
1) Our brain stores a lot of information.
2) Poisons or medications can cause temporary or permanent blindness.
3) In the brain, the olfactory system processes olfaction (smell).
4) Brain injuries can disturb the brain activity.
5) Scientists study the relationships between attention and consciousness.
6) The vestibular nerve conducts information from sensory receptors.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to retell it briefly
Cognitive processes, or cognition, are processes that involve knowledge and how people use their knowledge. They include matters such as attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems and making decisions. All these are very important for human behaviour.
Psychologists refer to all cognitive and mental activities as information processing. This involves three steps: input, central processing, and output. Input is the information people receive from their senses. Central processing is the storing (in memory) and sorting (by thought) of this information in the brain. Output refers to the ideas and actions that result from processing.
The ability to choose among the various available inputs is called selective attention. It is only the first step of cognition. The second step is to decide which aspects of the selected information you will focus on. This process is called feature extraction.
In order to be used, the inputs that reach the brain must be registered, perhaps “filed” for future reference. We call the storage of inputs memory.
Memory is the way in which we record the past, the act of remembering. Psychologists distinguish three kinds of memory: sensory storage holds information for only an instant; short-term memory keeps it in mind for about twenty seconds; long-term memory stores it indefinitely.
The things you have in your conscious mind at any moment are being held in short-term memory. If the information is worth holding into, it must be transferred to long-term memory.
The stored information is useless unless it can be retrieved from memory. We can only create new information with thinking. By thinking, humans are able to put together any combination of previous experience from memory and create something new.
People think in two distinct ways. The first, called directed thinking, is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal, such as the solution of a problem. The other type called non-directed thinking, consists of a free flow of thoughts through the mind, with no particular goal or plan. Non-directed thinking is usually rich in imagery and feelings.