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V. Translate into Ukrainian




1. Vigorous exercise increases oxygen consumption.

2. During the perioperative period pressure sores should be prevented by regular changes of position.

3. If tumor cells spread, in the process called metastasis, tumors can form in vital organs such as the lungs.

4. They were starving and covered with sores.

5. Pseudocysts may be complicated by infection, hemorrhage, rupture, and by compression of adjacent organs.

6. There are many models of duodenal ulcer.

7. From these findings, it can be suggested that pepsinogen genes are involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer.

8. The fields adjacent to the nuclear facility were found to have high levels of radioactivity.

9. There's not a particle of truth in what he says.

10. Gastrin levels may also be elevated by pernicious anemia.

11. The consumption of alcohol on the premises of the university is forbidden.

Reading

Gastrointestinal Disorders

The inside of the stomach and duodenum are remarkably resistant to injury from the acid and digestive enzymes they contain. Yet, they can become irritated, develop ulcers, become obstructed, and develop tumors.

Gastritis

Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach. A person with gastritis may suffer from loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, and bleeding from the stomach. Gastritis may be either acute or chronic.

Acute gastritis may be caused by a chemical or acid injury to the stomach lining. It often occurs because of excessive intake of alcoholic beverages or aspirin. A severe injury to the stomach may result if a person swallows such harmful chemicals as iodine, carbolic acid, or lye. Physicians treat the patient with an antidote or by cleansing the stomach. Chronic gastritis may occur during such conditions as stomach cancer, stomach ulcers, and duodenal ulcers. It may also occur after stomach surgery. One form, called pernicious anemia, causes atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach lining and leads to vitamin B|2 deficiency.

Peptic ulcers

Hydrochloric acid and other digestive juices can eat through the tissues that form the lining of the stomach and adjacent organs. Normally, the body replaces these tissues at about the same rate that they wear away. However, in some cases, the tissues erode faster than the body can replace them and open sores develop in the affected organ. Such sores, called peptic ulcers, can cause chronic stomach pain.

The two most common kinds of peptic ulcers are gastric and duodenal ulcers. Gastric ulcers develop in the stomach, typically from a weakening in the stomach's defense against tissue erosion. They sometimes result from the overuse of aspirin, which can irritate the stomach lining. The consumption of alcoholic beverages also can damage the stomach lining and cause gastric ulcers. Duodenal ulcers form in the duodenum. They usually result from excessive secretion of stomach acid.

Colitis

Colitis is a disease involving inflammation of the colon or other parts of the large intestine. There are three main types of colitis: (1) inflammatory colitis, (2) amebic colitis, and (3) mucous colitis. Inflammatory colitis usually occurs in people from 20 to 40 years old. Physicians do not know what causes the disease, but many believe that nervous tension and other psychological factors may make the illness worse. Amebic colitis results from consuming food or water contaminated by a certain type of parasitic ameba. Mucous colitis, also called spastic colon, is caused by spasms of the muscles in the wall of the colon.

Peritonitis

Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. It is an illness that can cause death. The peritoneum may become inflamed if it is attacked by bacteria or irritated by a foreign substance.

Dysentery

Dysentery is a disease involving inflammation of the lining of the large intestine. The inflammation, which is caused by microscopic organisms, produces abdominal pain and diarrhea. The bowel movements may contain mucus and blood. Some cases of dysentery include fever or vomiting.

Language development

. Fill in the gaps with words and word combinations from the list.

colon, acute, intestine, lining, bleeding, neutralizing, inflammation, abdominal

1. A person with gastritis may suffer from loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, and _________ from the stomach.

2. Antacids help by _________ the acid.

3. Gastritis is an __________ of the stomach.

4. _________ gastritis may be caused by a chemical or acid injury to the stomach lining.

5. Pernicious anemia causes atrophy of the stomach _________.

6. Colitis is a disease involving inflammation of the _________ or other parts of the large intestine.

7. Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines

the _________ cavity.

8. Dysentery is a disease involving inflammation of the lining of the _________ large.

. Fill in prepositions. One preposition should be used twice.

away, through, to, in, by, at, of, from

1. The inside of the stomach and duodenum are remarkably resistant... injury from the acid and digestive enzymes.

2. Pernicious anemia causes wasting... of the stomach lining.

3. Acute gastritis often occurs because... excessive intake of alcoholic beverages or aspirin.

4. Hydrochloric acid and other digestive juices can eat... the tissues that form the lining of the stomach.

5. Normally, the body replaces the tissues... about the same rate that they wear .

6. Inflammatory colitis usually occurs... people from 20 to 40 years old.

7. Amebic colitis results... consuming food or water contaminated by a certain type of parasitic ameba.

8. Mucous colitis is caused... spasms of the muscles in the wall of the colon.

. Replace the underlined words with their synonyms from the list.

decreases, strain, drinks, restraining, infected, ease, destroy, insusceptible, immoderate, restore, interior

1. Acute gastritis often occurs because of excessive intake of alcoholic beverages or aspirin.

2. Controlling emotional stress also lessens the chances of developing a duodenal ulcer.

3. Medications, such as histamine -2-receptor antagonists, relieve peptic ulcers.

4. In some cases, the tissues erode faster than the body can replace them.

5. The inside of the stomach and duodenum are remarkably resistant to injury from the acid and digestive enzymes they contain.

6. Nervous tensio n may make colitis worse.

7. Amebic colitis results from consuming food or water contaminated by a certain type of parasitic ameba.





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