Answer the following questions. 1. What does the male reproductive system consist of?

1. What does the male reproductive system consist of?

2. What are the organs that produce sperm?

3. What system transports the sperm?

4. What are the accessory glands?

5. Where are the testicles contained?

6. How many sperm does a healthy adult male normally produce per day?

7. Semen, which contains the sperm, is expelled from the body through the urethra, isn't it?

8. How do we call this process?

3. Read the text closely and complete the sentences.

1. The organs that produce sperm are....

2. The sperm leaves the body through the....

3. The testicles are contained in the....

4.In addition to producing sperm, the testicles also produce hormones, particularly....

5. Sperm develops in the testicles within a complex system of tubes called....

6. Sperm production normally continues throughout....

7. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called....

8. A tube that runs through the penis is called....

9. The process of expelling sperm from the body is called....

XIII : ˳ .

XIII : ˳

Cardiovascular disease.

- .

1. - - ;

2. - ;

3. .


. Form adjectives from the verbs below using the suffixes -able and -ible as in the example.

to prevent preventable,

to reverse reversible

To compare, to compress, to calculate, to consider, to change, to eat, to respond, to vary, to work, to operate, to estimate, to extend, to regulate.

. Learn the following words.

cardiovascular - -;

affliction - , ;

to treat ;

clot - , ;

nausea ;

vomiting ;

overexertion ;

myocardial infarction - ;

impairment ;

insomnia ;

hypertension ;

atherosclerosis ;

blood pressure - ' ;

pacemaker - ;

valve ;

nitroglycerine .

. Guess the meaning of the following words.

Muscle, paralysis, coronary, thrombosis, acceleration, active, spasm, circulation, arteries, result, symptomatic, attack, mechanism

IV. Match the word with its definition.

1. hypertension a. ailment caused by a blood clot in the brain
2. thrombus b. chest pain
3. cardiac infarction c. hardening of the arteries
4. atherosclerosis d. loss of function, inability to move
5. angina pectoris e. clot
6. artery f. high blood pressure
7. stroke g. heart attack
8. paralysis h. the largest type of blood vessel

V. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. Doctors can often predict heart problems.

2. Atherosclerosis is caused by layers of fat which line the artery walls.

3. Coronary thrombosis is a form of heart attack in which the main artery becomes blocked by a blood clot.

4. Stroke is caused when the blood supply to the brain is stopped.

5. A paralysis is caused by a stroke which affects the brain.

6. Heart patients can be grateful for the advances of modern science.


Cardiovascular Diseases

One of the most common afflictions in the modern society is heart disease. More than half of all deaths recorded in the world each year are the result of heart diseases. The heart is the strongest muscle in the body. Yet, like any piece of complicated machinery, it can wear out or break down.

Heart disease can appear in a variety of forms. Some can be treated successfully, other heart ailments are fatal.

One condition which can be treated by changing the environment is atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. With this disease, the inner walls of the arteries are gradually thickened by layers of fatty mate-rial, narrowing the channel for the passage of blood. Blood clots may form and block the circulation entirely. One way to decrease the likelihood of this condition is by reducing the cholesterol content of the diet, emphasizing vegetable oils, avoiding smoking and increasing exercise.

A patient who suffers from a heart attack has what doctors call a coronary thrombosis leading to myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest. One or more of the arteries supplying the heart muscle with blood become narrowed by a blood clot. Symptoms include pain in the chest, shortness of breath, and nausea.

Angina pectoris refers to chest pains caused when the heart muscle does not get enough oxygen. An attack is usually caused by overexertion and can be relieved by rest and nitroglycerin tablets.

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is reduced or completely cut off by a blood clot or a hemorrhage. Partial or complete paralysis may result.

Primary hypertension may be present for years without any symptoms or signs. In time the patient may become irritable, easily fatigued, with some detectable impairment of memory or an increase in the frequency of headaches. The patient may also complain of high blood pressure, insomnia, weakness, palpitations. In the later stages, hemorrhages, acute recurrent attacks of severe headaches, nausea and vomiting may occur.

Some patients with chronic heart conditions who do not respond to drugs can now be helped with open-heart surgery. The valves, arteries and other parts of the heart mechanism can be repaired or replaced. A pacemaker can be inserted to regulate the heart's beat artificially. Heart transplants have also been tried experimentally, with some success.

Language development

I. Complete the following sentences.

1. Atherosclerosis can be reduced by....

2. Symptoms of myocardial infarction are....

3. Angina pectoris is caused....

4. A stroke occurs when....

5. The patient with hypertension may complain of...

II. Choose the correct prepositions.

Treating Heart Diseases

Heart disease can be difficult to detect. A definite diagnosis can be made through/within blood tests and an electrocardiogram. A stress test shows how the heart performs in/under stress or work. Angiography is a process on/in which a special dye is injected into/to an artery. If a blocked coronary artery is detected, the balloon is inflated and the blockage is pushed against/from the artery wall. Coronary bypass surgery is done by using an artery from/out of the chest or a vein out of/from the leg. Blood flow to/into the heart is improved. The arteries may be bypassed over/during surgical operation. Heart transplants have been successful to/for some patients.

III. The table presents some common disorders and diseases. Use your dictionary to check the meaning and to practice the pronunciation of new items. Finally give English equivalents of the words given above the table.

, , , , , , , ',

Disorders and diseases Causes
Medical terms Other expressions  
anemia   red cell destruction; improper diet
angina pectoris angina insufficiency of coronary arteries
atherosclerosis hardening of arteries impairment in fat metabolism
endocarditis inflammation of heart membrane bacterial infection
hypertension high blood pressure vasoconstriction
myocardial infarction coronary infarct inadequate oxygen supply to cardiac muscle
bradycardia slow heartbeat exhaustion; cold, opium taking; barbiturate poisoning
tachycardia rapid heartbeat emotion; fever; drug usage, etc.

IV. Fill in the words and word combinations from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.

heart, the strongest, elevated, cardiac, primary, severe, flushed, attacks of, the content of, to be cut off by

1. muscle

2. the diet

3. hypertension

4. face

5. nausea and vomiting

6. diseases

7. a blood clot

8. headache

9. arrest

10. ________ blood pressure


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