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Complete the sentences with suitable words




1. A new individual develops from the joining together of two....

2. The period of development in which the egg develops into a fully formed эа№у within the body of the female is called....

3. By the end of the second month of pregnancy, all the major body... and... iave' formed.

4. Reproduction cannot actually occur until... organs mature.

5. The reproductive systems of females and males differ greatly in... and....

 


a) shape, b) reproductive, c) sex cells, d) organs,

e) structure, f) pregnancy,g) organ systems

IV. Speaking.

Make up a dialogue between a gynecologist/urologist and a patient. Here is vocabulary for you to speak about reproductive system problems.

QUESTIONS
FEMALE When did you start your last menstrual period? Does it come regular? How often? How heavy is the flow? How many days would you bleed? Have you experienced painful periods? Are you in the change of life? Are you on the pills? Do you have any pain on intercourse? Do you have any genital discharge? MALE Have you noticed any sores or swellings on your penis? Do you have any discharge from your penis? Any swellings or pain in the scrotum? How often do you have intercourse? Do you use condoms? Do you belong to a high risk group for AIDS?

INSTRUCTIONS

I am afraid you need a course of treatment with medications, both tablets and injections. There is recommended administration of estrogenic preparations. Don't live sexual life while treatment. Don't forget to use condoms while sexual intercourse.

V. Supplement.

Text 1

1. Match the following English word combinations and the Ukrainian ones.

1. external organs a) хвилепод≥бн≥ скороченн€

2. pear-shaped b) велика к≥льк≥сть

3. menstrual cycle c) зовн≥шн≥ органи

4. wavelike contractions d) грушопод≥бний

5.large amount e) менструальний цикл

2. Read and translate the following text. Get ready to speak on the female reproductive system.

THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

In females, the reproductive system consists primarily of a group of organs lo≠cated within the pelvis. A woman or girl has external organs called the vulva. The outer parts of the vulva cover the opening to a narrow canal called the vagina. The vagina leads to the uterus, a hollow, pear-shaped, muscular organ in which a baby develops. Two small, oval organs called ovaries lie to the right and left of the uterus. The ova≠ries produce, store, and release eggs. These organs also produce two types of hor≠mones Ч progesterone and estrogens. Eggs from the ovaries reach the uterus through tubes called fallopian tubes or oviducts.

Females produce eggs as part of a monthly process called the menstrual cycle, which begins during puberty. Each menstrual cycle, the female reproductive sys≠tem undergoes a series of changes that prepares it for fertilization and pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized, a shedding or loss of tissue in the uterus called menstrua≠tion occurs. Bleeding is associated with this process and lasts three to seven days. Menstruation marks the beginning of each menstrual cycle. Each cycle lasts about 28 days.

Other changes during a menstrual cycle involve cells in the ovaries called oocytes. Eggs develop from these cells. At birth, each ovary has about 400,000 oocytes. These cells remain inactive until the first menstrual cycle. Thereafter, many oocytes grow and begin to mature each month. Normally, only one oocyte in either of the ovaries reaches full maturity. This fully developed cell Ч the mature egg Ч is released from the ovary in a process called ovulation. This process occurs at about the midpoint of the menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the egg travels toward the uterus through one of the fallopian tubes by means of wavelike contractions of muscles and the beating of cilia (hairlike structures) located on cells in the walls of the oviduct. Fertilization may occur in one of the tubes. An unfertilized egg lives for about 24 hours after it leaves the ovary.

Important changes also occur in the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Dur≠ing the first half of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries release relatively large amounts of estrogens, which cause the endometrium to thicken. The endometrium reaches its maximum thickness at about the time of ovulation. After ovulation, the ovaries release relatively large amounts of progesterone. This hormone maintains the thick≠ness of the endometrium, so that a fertilized egg can attach to the uterus.

If fertilization occurs, the endometrium continues to develop. If fertilization does not occur, the egg breaks down and the production of progesterone decreases. The thickened endometrium also breaks down and passes out of the body during menstruation.

Most women produce eggs until the ages of about 45 to 55, when the menstrual cycles become increasingly infrequent and then stop. This period of a woman's life is called menopause. The completion of menopause marks the end of a woman's natural childbearing years.





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