IV. Choose the correct word

1. Antibiotics are obtained from synthetic/natural microorganisms.

2. A large/small dose of penicillin or certain other antibiotic kills disease-causing bacteria.

3. Doctors prescribe antiviral drugs to treat certain diseases caused by bacteria/viruses.

4. There are many/several kinds of vaccines.

5. The antiserums and globulins act more quickly/slowly than vaccines to prevent infection.

6. Vaccines contain a weakened/strengthened or killed form of the microbe that causes a particular disease.

V. Say whether the following statements are true or false.

1. In most cases sulfonamides and other synthetic antimicrobials kill the bacteria.

2. Antimicrobials kill or prevent multiplication of bacteria or viruses in the body.

3. Vaccines, antiserums and globulins treat infectious diseases.

4. There is no effective treatment for polio.

5. Vaccinations against smallpox have eradicated that disease.

6. Antibodies are substances that fight a particular disease.



I. Complete the dialogue with the words below and act it out.

Throat, stethoscope, sore, cough, knee

Doctor: Now, Debbie, can I have a look at you to find out where your bad _________ is coming from?

Patient: (Nods)

D.: Would you like to stay sitting on Mum's knee?

P.: (Nods)

D.: That's fine. Now let's ask Mum to take off your jumper and blouse. You'll not be cold in here. Now I'm going to put this thing on your chest. It's called a _________. It might be a bit cold. I'll warmit up. First of all I listen to your front and then your back.

Mother: She's had that done lots of times by Dr Stuart.

D.: Good, well done, you didn't move at all. Now I'd like to see your tummy, so will you lie on the bed for a minute?

P.: (Nods)

D.: Now while you are lying there, I'll feel your neck and under your
arms. Are you tickly? That's all very quick, isn't it? Mrs Thompson, could Debbie sit on your ____________ again? I'd like you to hold her there while I examine her ears and ____________ Right, Debbie. Here's a little light to look in your ears. This will tickle a bit but won't be. Good girl. What a nice ear. Now let's see the other one. Now nearly the last bit. Open your mouth. Let me see your teeth. Now open it as wide as you can. Well, we're all finished now. You've been very good. I'll have a talk with your Mum and you can play with the toys for a minute.

II. Give as much information as you can about:

- antibiotics;

- sulfonamides;

- antiviral drugs;

- vaccines;

- antiserums and globulins.



How AIDS affects on the humon body.

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I. The following suffixes combine with nouns and adjectives to form other adjectives.

-ular -like -ish
-ly -ous -y

Look at the words printed in bold and write down the appropriate adjective in the space provided.

1. She lay in bed, too... to sleep. fever
2. I have always been perfectly... until now. health
3.... fever is an infectious disease which makes your lymph nodes swell up. gland
4. AIDS is a... disease caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). dead
5. The virus is probably not... to humans. danger
6. The sight filled her with... excitement. child

II. Learn the following words.

specimen -, ;

to attach -, ;

to insert -; ;

eventually , ;

yeast ;

dementia -, ;

opportunistic ;

utensils , .

III. Match the words with the definitions.

1. to insert a. a small amount or a piece that is taken from something, so that it can be tested or examined
2. to attach b. after a long time, or after a lot of things have happened
3. specimen c. to fasten or connect one object to another
4. opportunistic d. a type of fungus used for producing alcohol in beer and wine, and for making bread rise
5. eventually e. to put something inside or into something else
6. dementia f. a thing such as a knife, spoon etc. that you use when you are cooking
7. utensils g. refers to a microorganism which usually does not cause a disease but in conditions of weakened immunity becomes pathogenic
8. yeast h. an illness that affects the brain and memory, and makes you gradually lose the ability to think and behave normally

IV. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Surgeons then insert another probe that emits high-frequency radio waves, similar to microwaves heating the surrounding tissue and creating a small lesion.

2. The doctor attached a tiny monitor to the baby's head.

3. The references and diagrams were attached to the document.

4. A sweet tooth, one of the most curious symptoms of candidiasis, is a craving for sugary foods or for foods containing yeast.

5. Dementia is seen as being specific to the elderly age groups.

6. The admission of a tenant already showing signs of dementia requires very careful consideration in each individual case.

7. The vast majority, 95 percent, of deaths certified as due to dementia were among those aged 65 and over.

8. Peter found the potato peeler in a drawer full of utensils.

9. We packed a few essential cooking utensils such as pots and a can opener for our camping trip.


How AIDS Affects the Body

AIDS is the final, life-threatening stage of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The name refers to the fact that HIV severely damages the immune system, the body's most important defense against diseases. Cases of AIDS were first identified in 1981 in the United States, but researchers detected HIV in a specimen collected in 1959 in central Africa. Millions of AIDS cases have been diagnosed worldwide.

Cause. AIDS is caused by two viruses that belong to a group called retroviruses. The first AIDS virus was isolated by researchers in France in 1983 and researchers in the United States in 1984. This virus became known as HIV-1. In 1985, scientists in France identified another closely related virus that also produces AIDS. This virus, named HIV-2, occurs mainly in Africa. HIV-1 occurs throughout the world.

HIV infects certain white blood cells, including T-helper cells and macrophages that play key roles in the immune system. The virus attaches to the CD4 receptor molecules on the surface of these cells, which are often called CD4 cells. HIV enters the CD4 cells and inserts its own genes into the cell reproductive system. The cell then produces more HIV, which spreads to other CD4 cells. Eventually, the infected cells die. The immune system produces millions of CD4 cells every day, but HIV destroys them as fast as they are produced.

Symptoms. People infected with HIV eventually develop symptoms that also may be caused by other less serious conditions. With HIV infection, however, these symptoms are prolonged and often more severe. They include enlarged lymph glands, tiredness, fever, loss of appetite and weight, diarrhea, yeast infections, and night sweats.

HIV commonly causes a severe "wasting syndrome", resulting in substantial weight loss, a general decline in health, and, in some cases, death. The virus often infects the brain and nervous system. There HIV may cause dementia, a condition characterized by sensory, thinking, or memory disorders. HIV infection of the brain also may cause movement or coordination problems.

An HIV-infected person may develop AIDS from 2 to 15 or more years after becoming infected. In children born with HIV infection, this interval is usually shorter. There are six periods in the AIDS course. The first is infection with the virus. The second is incubation and it lasts for 2 or 3 weeks. The third period is the so-called acute AIDS. During this time (23 weeks) airway inflammations, allergy, mononucleosis may occur. Then comes the fourth latent, hidden period. It's the longest one and can last up to 15 years (usually 23 years). The fifth period is pre-AIDS. Its signs are cough, emaciation, lymphoadenopathia, fever, night sweats. The person is to die within 1.5 years. The sixth period is AIDS itself the person slowly dies of any casual infection or invasion.

Medical treatment can increase the interval by inhibiting the growth of HIV, preserving the immune system, and delaying the onset of opportunistic infections. An infected person can transmit the virus to another person whether or not symptoms are present. Infection with HIV appears to be lifelong in all who become infected.

Transmission. Researchers have identified three ways in which HIV is transmitted: (1) sexual intercourse, (2) direct contact with infected blood, and (3) transmission from an infected woman to her fetus or baby. The most common way of becoming infected is through sexual contact with an HIV-infected person. Most people who have the virus don't even know about it. They may look and feel completely well. To prevent transmission of HIV, sexual contact with anyone who is or might be infected with the virus must be avoided.

People who inject drugs into their bodies can be exposed to infected blood by sharing needles, syringes, or equipment used to prepare drugs for injection. Health-care workers can become infected with HIV by coming into direct contact with infected blood. This may occur through injury with a needle or another sharp instrument used in the treatment of an HIV-infected patient. A few patients became infected while receiving treatment from an HIV-infected dentist and from a surgeon.

An infected pregnant woman can transmit the AIDS virus to her fetus even if she has no symptoms. Transmission may also occur from an HIV-infected mother to her baby through breast-feeding.

Studies indicate that HIV is not transmitted through air, food, or water, or by insects. No known cases of AIDS have resulted from sharing eating utensils, bathrooms, locker rooms, living space, or classrooms.

Language development

I. Fill in the gaps with the words from the list.

worldwide, genes, wasting, decline, acquired, identified, surface, fetus

1. AIDS stands for _________ immunodeficiency syndrome.

2. Millions of AIDS cases have been diagnosed _________.

3. The virus attaches to CD4 receptor molecules on the _________ of these cells, which are often called CD4 cells.

4. HIV enters CD4 cells and inserts its own _________ into the cell's reproductive system.

5. HIV commonly causes a severe " __________ syndrome", resulting in substantial weight loss, a general _________ in health, and, in some cases, death.

6. Researchers have __________ three ways in which HIV is transmitted: (1) sexual intercourse, (2) direct contact with infected blood, and (3) transmission from an infected woman to her _________ or baby.

II. Fill in the correct preposition. Use one of them twice.

to, throughout, in, through, from, into

1. People who inject drugs... their bodies can be exposed to infected blood.

2. HIV-1 occurs... the world.

3. HIV attaches... CD4 receptor molecules.

4. HIV commonly causes a severe "wasting syndrome," resulting... substantial weight loss, a general decline... health, and, in some cases, death.

5. Transmission may also occur from an HIV-infected mother to her baby... breast-feeding.

6. No known cases of AIDS have resulted... sharing eating utensils, bathrooms, locker rooms, living space, or classrooms.

III. Match each word from column A with its opposite from column B.

1. cause a. to extract
2. related b. to detach
3. to attach c. gain
4. to insert d. improvement
5. loss e. unconnected
6. decline f. expressed
7. latent g. to protect
8. to expose h. to repress
9. to spread i. effect


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