IV. Translate into Ukrainian

1. There have been no smallpox epidemics for many years.

2. Smallpox disfigures the face.

3. Whooping cough occurs mainly in young children.

4. They diluted the drug, thus reducing its effectiveness.

5. Most students choose one particular area for research.

6. Margaret has been teaching in that particular class for five years.

7. Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox.

8. He had very fine, fair hair and pale skin, faintly p'itted by smallpox.

9. Some progress was made upon the reduction of major epidemics of malaria, cholera, smallpox and yellow-fever.

10. The report revealed that workers had been exposed to high levels of radiation.

11. A few infections arise from inanimate sources: for example, pathogens that cause tetanus are harbored in the soil.

12. The decision to give tetanus immunisation depends on the patient's immunity as well as the wound's susceptibility to tetanus.


Drugs that Fight Infection and Drugs that Prevent Infectious Diseases

Drugs that kill or help prevent multiplication of bacteria or viruses that infect the body are called antimicrobials. Antimicrobials that act against bacteria include antibiotics and, sulfonamides (sulfa drugs). Antibiotics are obtained from naturally occurring microorganisms. Sulfonamides are prepared synthetically. A large dose of penicillin or certain other antibiotics kills disease-causing bacteria. A smaller dose of such an antibiotic keeps the bacteria from multiplying in the body and thus allows the body's natural defenses to destroy them. Sulfonamides also prevent bacteria from multiplying in the body. In most cases, however, sulfonamides and other synthetic antimicrobials do not kill the bacteria.

Doctors prescribe antiviral drugs to treat certain diseases caused by viruses. For example, the antiviral drug zidovudine, commonly called AZT, is used in the treatment of AIDS.

Two kinds of drugs prevent infectious diseases. They are (1) vaccines and (2) antiserums and globulins. Some of these drugs, such as polio vaccines, are especially valuable because there is no effective treatment for the disease they prevent.

Vaccines contain a weakened or killed form of the microbe that causes a particular disease. There are several kinds of vaccines. Each kind causes the body to produce substances, which are called antibodies that fight a particular disease. The vaccine thus makes the body immune to the disease by providing resistance against attacks by it. Vaccines have been developed against such infectious diseases as cholera, diphtheria, hepatitis, measles, and smallpox, as well as polio. In fact, vaccinations against smallpox have wiped out that disease.

Antiserums and globulins, like vaccines, prevent certain infectious diseases. But unlike vaccines, these drugs contain antibodies rather than substances that cause the body to produce antibodies. The antiserums and globulins act more quickly than vaccines to prevent infection but give only temporary protection. Physicians prescribe these drugs after a person who has not been vaccinated is exposed to an infectious disease. Antiserums are used against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus (lockjaw). Examples of diseases against which globulins protect include hepatitis, rabies, and tetanus.

Language development

I. Fill in the prepositions. Use two of them twice.

against, by, out, after, to, from

1. Antimicrobials that act... bacteria include antibiotics and sulfonamides.

2. A smaller dose of such an antibiotic keeps the bacteria... multiplying in the body.

3. The vaccine makes the body immune... the disease... providing resistance... attack by it.

4. Vaccinations against smallpox have wiped... that disease.

5. Physicians prescribe these drugs... a person who has not been vaccinated is exposed... an infectious disease.

II. Answer the following questions.

1. What are antimicrobials?

2. How are antimicrobials that act against bacteria classified?

3. How are antibiotics obtained?

4. How are sulfonamides prepared?

5. What are antiviral drugs?

6. What are the two kinds of drugs that prevent infectious diseases?

7. What are vaccines?

8. What are antiserums and globulins?

III. Match the words with their opposites.

1. natural a. strengthened
2. to prevent b. ineffective
3. common c. to deprive
4. effective d. permanent
5. weakened e. to help
6. to provide f. abnormal
7. temporary g. artificial
8. to expose h. to protect


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