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Read the information about urinary system problems. Try to memorize the meaning of some terms denoting urinary system disorders




URINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS

Problems in the urinary system can be caused by aging, illness, or injury. As you get older, changes in the kidneys' structure cause them to lose some of their ability to remove wastes from the blood. Also, the-muscles in your ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. You may have more urinary infections because the bladder muscles do not tighten enough to empty your bladder completely. A decrease in strength of muscles of the sphincters and the pelvis can also cause incontinence, the unwanted leakage of urine. Illness or injury can also prevent the kidneys from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine. Disorders of the urinary system range in severity from easy-to-treat to life-threatening.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition in men that affects the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is located at the bottom of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. BPH is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can interfere with urinary function in older men. It causes blockage by squeezing the urethra, which can make it difficult to urinate. Men with BPH frequently have other bladder symptoms including an increase in frequency of bladder emptying both during the day and at night. Most men over age 60 have some BPH, but not all have problems with blockage. There are many different treatment options for BPH.

Interstitial cystitis (1) is a chronic bladder disorder also known as painful bladder syndrome and frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. In this disorder, the bladder wall can become inflamed and irritated. The inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, pinpoint bleeding, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. The cause of 1 is unknown at this time.

Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency and urgency, burning or painful urination (dysuria), and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms. In some cases, prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics. But the more common forms of prostatitis are not associated with any known infecting organism. Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating the nonbacterial forms of prostatitis.

Renal (kidney) failure results when the kidneys are not able to regulate water and chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood. Acute renal failure (ARF) is the sudden onset of kidney failure. This can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, or some drugs or poisons. ART may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). You may go several years without knowing you have CKD.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria in the urinary tract. Women get UTIs more often than men. UTIs are treated with antibiotics. Drinking lots of fluids also helps by flushing out the bacteria. The name of the UTI depends on its location in the urinary tract. An infection in the bladder is called cystitis. If the infection is in one or both of the kidneys, the infection is called pyelonephritis. This type of UTI can cause serious damage to the kidneys if it is not adequately treated.

Your primary doctor can help you with some urinary problems. Your pediatrician may be able to treat some of your child's urinary problems. But some problems may require the attention of a urologist, a doctor who specializes in treating problems of the urinary system and the male reproductive system. A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system and may be able to help with some urinary problems. A urogynecologist is a gynecologist who specializes in the female urinary system. A nephrologist specializes in treating diseases of the kidney.

2. Read the text closely and answer the following questions.

1. What causes problems in the urinary system?

2. Where is the prostate located?

3. What is BPH?

4. To what complications can inflammation in interstitial cystitis lead?

5. What is prostatitis?

6. Can prostatitis be treated with antibiotics? When antibiotics are ineffective?

7. When does renal (kidney) failure result?

8. What is the difference between acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease?

9. Who gets urinary tract infections more often?

10. How do we call an infection in the bladder?

11. What is pyelonephritis?

12. Who can help with a urinary problem?

13. How do we call the specialist who treats diseases of the kidney?

3. Fill in the blanks with the words given below.

a) Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition in men that affects the...gland.

b) In interstitial cystitis the bladder wall can become....

c) In some cases, prostatitis is caused by... infection.

d) Acute renal failure may lead to permanent loss of... function.

e) Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria in the... tract.

f)... is a doctor who specializes in treating problems of the urinary system and the male reproductive system.

 


a) bacterial, b) kidney, c) urologist, d) blood, e) urinary,

j) prostate, g) inflamed

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