I. Complete the dialogue with the words and word combinations from the list below and act it out

trouble, shortness of breath, the work, digitalis, free diet, arteries, salt

Dr. Young: Good morning, Mr. Hollister. How are you getting on?

Mr. Hollister: I've not been feeling well for the last week. I've had some, and as you can see my legs are swollen now.

Dr. Y: Are you still taking your digitalis? Did you put any... in your food?

Mr.H.: Well, Doctor, I've been out of... for the last week. And it is hard for me to eat completely without salt. Doctor, could you tell me what my problem is?

Dr. Y.: I believe you have hardening of... with the involvement of the heart. Now your heart is not able to perform... it is supposed to. Regarding your treatment, I think you should continue to take one tablet of digitalis a day on a salt . Otherwise you'll get in....

Mr.H.: When shall I come back?

Dr. Y: Three weeks from today. Good-bye now and be careful.

Mr.H.: Bye. See you in three weeks.

II. Read the dialogue of exercise XXII again and choose the correct statements.

a) .

b) .

a) .

b) .

a) .

b) .

a) ˳ 䳺.

b) 䳺.

III. Use the words and word combinations from the list and ask questions to a patient suffering from a heart disease.

Complaints, to complain of, to have troubles with the heart, to have pain in the heart, the character of the pain, dull pain, sharp pain, to have pain after physical exertion, arterial pressure, angina pectoris, cardiac failure.



Cardiovascular drugs.

- .

1. - ;

2. , , ;

3. ( , , ).


I. Learn the following words.

to affect ;

to alter ;

to contract ;

digitalis - , ;

to depress ;

vasodilator - , ;

to relax ;

vessel ;

flow - , ;

epinephrine ;

dilate .

. Match the word with its definition.

1. digitalis glycosides a. drugs which increase the amount of urine excreted
2. antiarrhythmic b. drugs which constrict muscle fibers around blood vessels
3. quinidine c. drugs which prevent blood clotting
4. vasodilators d. an antiarrhythmic drug; helps to restore the heart rhythm
5. nitroglycerin e. drugs which increase the rate and force of the heartbeat when the heart is in failure
6. diuretic f. a drug which is used to correct an abnormal heart rhythm
7. vasoconstrictors g. drugs which increase the size of blood vessels, by relaxing the muscles in the vessel walls
8. anticoagulant h. the type of vasodilator with a great effect on the coronary arteries

I. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. Digitalis glycosides are used to treat patients with heart failure.

2. The important effect of digitalis glycosides are the strengthening of the myocardium.

3. Quinidine is a primary drug used to treat arrhythmias.

4. Vasoconstrictors are used in treating blood vessel diseases.

5. Nitrites dilate all smooth muscles in the body.

6. Diuretic promotes excretion of fluid.

7. Vasoconstrictors act directly on the muscles of blood vessels.



Cardiovascular Drugs

Cardiovascular drugs may be divided into three groups: drugs that affect the heart; drugs that affect blood pressure; and drugs that prevent blood clotting.

Drugs that affect the heart. Drugs may affect the heart in two major ways: changing the rate and forcefulness of the heartbeat.

The most common drugs used to change the rate and forcefulness of the heartbeat are the digitalis glycosides (cardiac glycosides). These drugs are used to treat patients in heart failure (when the heart is not contracting with sufficient force). Most of the digitalis glycosides are obtained from the leaf of the digitalis (foxglove) plant. The important effects of the digitalis glycosides are the strengthening of the myocardium (heart muscle) and the slowing of the rate of the heart contraction. Examples of digitalis are digoxin, and digitoxin.

Other drugs, which belong to the general class of sympathomimetics are used to increase heart rate and the force of contraction. These include isoproterenol and epinephrine.

Drugs used to correct abnormal heart rhythm are called antiarrhythmics. Examples of these drugs are quinidine, procainamide, lido-caine and propranolol.

Drugs that affect blood pressure. Vasodilators are drugs which relax the muscles of vessel walls. Blood flows more freely and blood pressure falls as blood vessels open and become dilated. Examples of nitrite drugs are nitroglycerin and amylnitrite. Nitroglycerin dilates all smooth muscles in the body including the muscles of the coronary blood vessels. The pain (angina pectoris) caused by a lack of adequate blood flow to the heart is relieved by placing nitroglycerin under the tongue.

A third type of drugs used to lower blood pressure is called a diuretic, an agent which promotes excretion of fluid. An example of this type of drug is chlorothiazide (Diuril).

Vasoconstrictors are drugs which constrict muscle fibers around blood vessel opening. Vasoconstrictors are needed to raise blood pressure, increase the force of heart action and stop local bleeding. Examples of vasoconstrictor drugs are epinephrine (adrenaline), vasopressin and aramine (metaraminol).

Drugs that prevent blood clotting. These drugs are called anticoagulants. They are used to prevent the formation of clots in veins and arteries. Heparin is an anticoagulant chemical substance. When given intravenously, heparin prevents the formation of clots within vessels. Aspirin is the most widely used anticoagulant.

Language development

. Complete the sentences using the words and word combinations from the list below.

similar, leaf, clots, the heart muscle, blood, tongue, flow

1. The _______ may cause occlusion of blood supply to a vital organ.

2. Digitalis is obtained from the _______ of the digitalis.

3. Quinidine decreases the number of times _______ can contract in a given period of time.

4. Other nitrite drugs work in a manner _______ to that of nitroglycerin.

5. _______ and lymph are the liquid tissues of the body.

6. _______ moves food around during chewing.

7. Obstruction of the _______ of blood can lead to the back flow of blood.

. Choose the correct preposition.

1. Absorption of a drug is the process of movement of the drug to/ from the site of/in its application towards the general circulation.

2. In this process, physiochemical properties of/in drugs, their formulations, and route of administration are all important.

3. A prerequisite to absorption is that the drug must be able to enter into/at solution.

4. Thus, for example, in/on case of solid drug products (e.g. tablets) the ingredients must undergo disintegration, deaggregation, and dissolution.



. Replace the underlined words with their synonyms from the list.


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