Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box. 1. The term was introduced by English doctor Edward Jenner

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1. The term was introduced by English doctor Edward Jenner.

2. Most countries have... systems which were introduced to meet the costs.

3. Most old killer diseases have been brought under....

4. Medical services cost a lot of money and some people can't... it.

5. The family doctor is still working on his own diagnosing... and treating them.

6. Now the physician is able to draw... of people who specialize in various diseases.

7. The... of payment for the treatment still remains.

8. Many important... were made to reduce people's mortality.

9. The... of inoculation is to produce immunity against infections diseases.

7. Use the correct prepositions.

1. That story reminds me of/for ancient times.

2. I have to translate this article to/into English for my professor.

3. The main disadvantage to/of this plan is that it is more expensive than the previous one.

4. The teacher blamed us with/for violating rules.

5. This procedure can be carried out in/at the emergency department.

6. A group of students discuss the possible reasons for/about abdominal pain after meals.

7. These days are known to create equal opportunities both in/for the students and members of the staff.

8. We discuss topics in/at a small group with our lecturer.

8. Say whether the following statements are true using: I'm sure that, frankly speaking, to my mind, in my opinion....

1. Prehistoric healers performed some surgical procedures quite successfully.

2. In ancient civilizations specific foods were prescribed a lion's heart to fortify one's courage.

3. Some of the methods that ancient healers employed in their efforts to prevent or cure diseases are still in use.

4. It is a long-standing tradition for physicians to follow the high ideals outlined in the Hippocratic Oath.

9. Read the text "History of Medicine: Part 1" and answer the following questions.

1. What methods were used in the past to prevent illnesses?

2. Who is called the "father of medicine?"

3. What is acupuncture?

4. What country is famous for using acupuncture in ancient times?

5. Why is the study of human anatomy important for physician's work?

6. How were diseases treated in early societies?

7. Did prehistoric and ancient peoples make any medical discoveries of curative value? What are they?

8.Is doctor-patient relationship important for medical career?

9. What country were medicinal plants traditionally used in?

10. Why was Galen's anatomical research of great value?

History of Medicine: Part 2

The Middle Ages date from about 500 AD. to about 1500 AD. The period from 500 AD. to about 1000 AD. is often referred to as Dark Ages, as there was lack of progress in the ability of people to understand and control their environment. During Middle Ages many hospitals were built in Europe. In the middle of the 14th century the bubonic plague killed one-fourth of the European population and the scientists became more determined to search for practical, effective methods of dealing with medical problems. This marked the beginning of the scientific approach to medicine.

During the Renaissance, laws forbidding the dissection of cadavers were relaxed and as a result, the first accurate textbook on human anatomy was published. In 1515 the first public dissection of a human cadaver was performed.

Dissection enabled physicians to identify the heart and its circulatory system, the major nerves, the stomach and other digestive organs.

In 1545, the first pharmacy was opened in London. Prescription of medicines had been administered prior to this time, but the establishment of this shop indicated means of treating a disease. Today, many thousands of drugs are used to treat illnesses.

The microscope was invented in 1590. Laboratory technicians use it regularly to analyze specimens of blood, urine and tissue. Their reports help physicians to make the diagnosis of a disease.

In the early 1600s, English physician William Harvey discovered how blood circulates in the body and published the first medical book describing this circulation and the role of the heart. In 1667, the first blood transfusion was performed. In 1699 a law to control communicable diseases was enacted in the American colony of Massachusetts.

In the 19th century, modern surgery was made possible by two revolutionary discoveries: the invention of safe methods of anesthesia and the control of wound infection by the use of antiseptics and sterile equipment. Besides, a set of diagnostic procedures, requiring a complete case history and a thorough physical examination, became common medical practice. In 1895, Roentgen discovered the X-ray to detect abnormalities inside the body.

The 20th century has brought medical advances in nearly every area of medicine. Open-heart surgery has been developed. Organ transplants are often successful. Vaccines (infectious agents given to patients to establish resistance to particular diseases) have almost eliminated the threat of poliomyelitis. The electrocardiogram (EKG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and computed tomography help physicians to detect heart and brain malfunctions. Due to early diagnosis and more effective treatment more and more cancer victims are surviving. X-ray examination helps to make more accurate diagnosis and more effective treatment. Lasers become very helpful in surgery. As people change their lifestyles and their environment new diseases appear. That's why health workers always search for better medical care.

III. Language Development


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