Explain the meaning of these words



occupational illnesses

Add appropriate nouns to the adjectives above.

- aid,

- treatment,

- disease,

- medicine.

5. Give synonyms to:





II. Reading

Read the text carefully:

a) underline any words that you do not know or are unsure of;

b) use a dictionary; find or check the meaning of the words you've underlined;

c) compare what you find with your partner.


The people who from ancient times lived on the southern steppes between the Dnipro and Danube in the process of labour gradually acquired practical habits of medical aid. Empiric medical knowledge which was enriched by the experience of other peoples was passed on from generation to generation. At the same time expedient hygienic facilities (bath houses, etc) came into being.

With the foundation of Kyiv Rus the level of medical care was raised considerably. In those times medical knowledge developed on the basis of original folk medicine enriched by some information derived from antique and Arabian medicine and also by the experience of the Southern and Western Slavs in the field of medicinal treatment. With the growth of towns, groups of persons arose out of the handicraftsmen, who had mastered certain practical experience in medical aid, e.g., in setting dislocations, midwifery, etc.

Superstition was considerably widespread in the medical practice of that time. During the age of feudalism epidemics of plague, smallpox and typhoid fever practically never ceased on the territory where Ukrainian people lived, in most countries of the world. But it was only the 17th century that government measures were undertaken against epidemics.

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the organization of medical services underwent certain changes due to the reforms introduced by Peter I, which devoted special attention to provision of medicinal services and to medical education. Teaching of natural science and medicine was introduced at the Kyiv Academy, and also at collegiates in Chernihiv, Kharkiv, and Pereyaslav in the 18th century.

On Ukrainian territory physicians were trained at the Yelizavetgrad surgical school (17871797). In the 18th and early 19th centuries a large number of the country's medical scientist received their general education in the Kyiv Academy and the collegiates of other Ukrainian cities, and their professional training in the hospital school of St. Petersburg and Moscow, at the medical departments of Moscow University (founded in 1764), or at the St. P.& M. medico-surgical academies (founded in 1798).

In 1932 there were 1,333 hospital institutions with 73,800 beds and 18,715 doctors in Ukraine.

Therapeutic and prophylactic aid in Ukraine includes out-patient polyclinic and hospital aid. Most of the patients (about 80 %) begin their treatment at polyclinics. An extensive network of out-patient departments and polyclinics has been organized in the towns and villages of Ukraine, with well-equipped special departments and labouratories. The out-patient treatment is organized on the district-territory principle. Along with medical treatment a great deal of work is carried on disease prevention, in particular that of infectious diseases.

In addition to the general network of medical institutions, medical services to workers in Ukrainian industrial enterprises are effected by medico-sanitary departments and health centers which give out-patient and in-patient aid, implement sanitary measures at the places of work and in the workers' homes and also assist in the prevention of occupational illnesses and injuries. Out-patient treatment is widely developed in both town and village.

First aid, urgent medical aid for the population of Ukraine is provided by first-aid station. The overwhelming majority of hospitals were provided with X-ray and physical therapy rooms and clinical diagnostic labouratories. Electrocardiography, tomofluorography and other up-to-date diagnostic methods are widely spread and biochemical, bacteriological, immunological, cytological, and other research is conducted.

III. Post-reading activities

1. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following word combinations and comment them in the context of the text.

, , , , 㳺 , , , , 쳿 , 쳿 , .

2. Answer the following questions.

a) By which way was empiric medical knowledge enriched in ancient times?

b) With the foundation of Kyiv Rus the level of medical care was raised considerably, wasn't it?

c) In what cities was teaching of natural science and medicine introduced first in Ukraine?

d)What does prophylactic aid include?

e) What is the general network of medical institutions and medical services in Ukraine?

3. Ask your friend:

- to describe the territory were first Ukrainians lived;

- what the name of the first Ukrainian state was;

- who treated people at that time;

- to name first medical schools and universities;

- on what principle an out-patient treatment is organized;

- what diagnostic facilities he (she) knows.

4. Here are some words which will be useful for you while speaking about the development of medical service in Ukraine. Add them to the diagram.

high level handicraftsmen antique widespread epidemics plague smallpox typhoid reforms changes provision education


History of medical care in Ukraine
Kyiv Rus
folk medicine
Peter I



5. Write your commentary on:

- out-patient polyclinic aid;

- disease prevention;

- general network of medical institutions;

- first aid (urgent aid);

- facilities at hospitals.

IV. Supplement

Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian. Be ready to discuss the text. While reading make a plan of the text.


The practice of medicine production in early Rus was based on national traditions and the knowledge taken from ancient texts. First of all there were Greek texts brought to Rus from Byzantium, which was the centre of trade and crafts in the 9th11th centuries. One of the main trade routes ran through Kyiv, Pskov, and Veliky Novgorod and was comparable to the route through China and India to Europe. The spread of knowledge was enforced due to orthodox monks from the Holy Mt. Athos (Greece).

In the 10th13 th centuries medicopharmaceutical traditions were well founded in Rus but culture and statehood were the main elements of East European civiliza-

tion development. During those times the main manuscript libraries were collected. Along with the major cities of Europe such libraries were collected in Kyiv, and Veliky Novgorod.

The development of medical and pharmaceutical knowledge started after the establishment of good relations with Western Europe. In the 16th century first professional pharmacists arrived to Moscow. Thus, pharmacies like western Officina Sanitatis appeared in Russia in the 16th century. The first pharmacy was organized according to western regulations. Still, the biggest influence on Moscow pharmacies was exerted by the Statute of Friedrich II von Hohenstaufen, which was accepted in England for the regulation of pharmaceutical activity.

So, a Russian pharmacy of those days was selling many products, mainly imported from England. According to foreign sources, Russian pharmacies were very well equipped. Pharmaceutical trade formation required proper management of the new kind of activity, and the development of state medicine in Russia took its beginning at the end of the 16th century.

The first institution that held responsibility for medical affairs was Apothecary's Order that was opened in Moscow in 1581. During 120 years of the Apothecary's Order activity it was leaded by major noble families earl Vyazemsky, future king Boris Godunov, representatives of Cherkassky, Sheremetyevsky, Milo-slavsky and Odoevsky families.



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