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Development of Pharmacy and Medicine in Europe




–озвиток фармац≥њ ≥ медицини в ™вроп≥.

I. Vocabulary

1. Learn the topical vocabulary.

Holy Rome Ч —в€тий –им;

materia medica (лат.) Ч медичн≥ науки;

adulterated drugs Ч л≥карськи (речовини) з дом≥шками;

dispensing assistant Ч рецептар;

who were recruited from apothecaries Ч котр≥ набиралис€ з аптекар≥в;

unlike the apothecaries' shops, the chemists' shops enjoyed protection Ч на в≥дм≥ну в≥д старих аптек, аптеки, що в≥дкрит≥ коледжем л≥кар≥в, були п≥д захистом;

decree of Peter I Ч наказ ѕетра I;

hospital chemist's Ч аптеки в л≥карн€х;

private chemist's Ч приватн≥ аптеки.

2. Learn the word definitions.

Chronicle (noun) Ч a record of events that happened in the past, in the order of which they happened.

Chronicle (verb) Ч to make a record of events in the order in which they happened.

3. Match the words/word combinations and their translations.

A. 1. integral part 1. незалежна галузь

2. contributed to the store 2. в≥докремив фармац≥ю

3. independent branch 3. своњ власн≥

4. separated pharmacy 4. дуже мало

5. of their own 5. руйнувати

6. to destroy 6. небажаний учасник

7. very few 7. зробили внесок до скарбниц≥

8. unwanted member 8. повноправний виготовлювач

9. a rightful maker 9. користуватись захистом

10. to enjoy the protection 10. нев≥д'Їмна частина

¬. 1. до 12-го стор≥чч€ 1. special pharmaceutical training

2. спец≥альна фармацевтична осв≥та 2. the duty of a pharmacist

3. лише медицину 3. could inspect

4. швидко набрав сили 4. permitted practice of medicine

5. могли перев≥р€ти 5. remained assistants

6. дозволив практикувати медицину 6. was a great success

7. залишались пом≥чниками 7. till the twelfth century

8. мала великий усп≥х 8. only medicine

9. не була ухвалена парламентом 9. rapidly gathered power

10. обов'€зок фармацевта 10. was not adopted by the Parliament

II. Reading

1. Read the text, write out all the dates you come across and:

- the names of medicine development periods;

- the names of organizations which protected only physicians;

- the names of organizations formed to protect pharmacists;

- the subjects studied by future chemists in Russia.

DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY IN EUROPE

Till the 12th century pharmacy was an integral part of medicine. The era of the Egyptian school of medicine was followed by the Greek, Roman and Arabian periods. Each period of de≠velopment of medicine contributed to the store of medical knowledge by 1000 A.D. came to British Isles across Europe.

Pharmacy, as an independent branch of medicine was bom in Europe in 1240 when the Emperor of Holy Rome separated pharmacy from medicine. However, there was no special pharmaceutical training at the time. Till late seventeenth and even eighteenth century, the universities taught their students materia medi-ca. The pharmacists attending European univer≠sities from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century studied only medicine.

The duty of a pharmacist was to prepare and sell medicines and to help the doctor. In Great Britain assistants to the physicians were called apothecaries. Eng≠lish apothecaries had no organization of their own.

In 1518 the College of Physicians was founded and rapidly gathered power and prestige so much so that in 1560, the physicians could inspect the apothecary's shops and destroy any adulterated drags found there.

The Medical Act of 1540 permitted practice of medicine by any person having the experience, or knowledge of herbs, roots, or waters. It was necessary because the physicians were very few in number. The apothecaries could now dispense medicines. However they remained assistants to physicians. Only rich people could come to physicians for help and the poor usually went to the apothecary's shops.

In 1623 the apothecaries opened a manufacturing laboratory which produced galenical preparations. This was necessary, in their opinion, because the drags sold were often adulterated. The laboratory was a great success and in 1671 it developed into a real chemical plant. The apothecaries had the right to dispense medicines.

The success of the apothecaries did not please the physicians and the College of Physicians opened their own shop where medicines were mixed and sold and called it "dispensary" in 1697. The apothecaries were not trained in treating the sick people and became unwanted members of the medical profession.

In the dispensary of the College of Physicians the work of compounding and dispensing was performed by "dispensing assistants" who were recruited from apothecaries. The dispensary assistants opened shops and became the dispensing chemists. Unlike the apothecaries' shops, the chemists' shops enjoyed the protec≠tion of the dispensing chemists increased.

In 1774 the General Pharmaceutical Associations of Great Britain was formed by the apothecaries but was not adopted by Parliament.

The fight continued till in 1841 the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain was newly formed as an organization which aimed to establish the position of the chemists and apothecaries as a rightful makers and suppliers of medicines and the true representatives of the scientific profession of pharmacy.

In the years that followed the importance of the pharmacist was demonstrated by an increasing number of prescriptions and greater number of pharmaceutists.

In Russia pharmacy as a branch of science started its development since the decree of Peter I in the eighteenth century. According to the decree pharmacists got special training at the hospital chemists' and private chemists'. Some of them had practice at the chemists' orchards (gardens).

The pupils studied botany and had practice of pharmacy at the hospital che≠mists'. At the end of their study they had an examinations for the title of a pharma≠cist and chemist assistant.

Pharmacy is now made possible by organized pharmaceutical education, phar≠maceutical research and pharmaceutical industry.

2. Finish the chronicle.

The Chronicle of Pharmacy Development in Europe
till the 12th century Pharmacy was an integral part of medicine.
1240 Pharmacy was separated from medicine by the Emperor of

Holy Rome.

1518 The College of Physicians was founded.
1540 ----------------------------------------------------





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