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Read and discuss the text. Underline any words that you do not know. Use a dictionary




DANYLO ZABOLOTNY (18661920)

A part of science which people don't often realize is the courage of those scientists who willingly sacrifice their own lives for the benefit of mankind. There was an example of such courage in our country at the end of the last century. During the 1890s a young doctor named Danylo Zabolotny was carrying out a research with cholera germs at the University of Kyiv. He was trying to develop a vaccine that could be used to protect against the disease. To prove its value the young doctor and one of his assistants .. Savchenko tested the vaccine on themselves. First they swallowed the new vaccine. Then they injected themselves with cholera germs. The vaccine was a success, proved by the courage of the man who had developed it. Danylo Zabolotny was a famous microbiologist who devoted his life to science.

2. Rearrange the statements in the order as they occur in the text. (Give numbers.)

1. The vaccine was a success, proved by the courage of the man who had developed it. 2. To prove its value the young doctor and one of his assistants .. Savchenko tested the vaccine on themselves. 3. A part of science which people don't often realize it's the courage of those scientists who willingly sacrificed their own lives for the benefit of mankind. 4. During the 1890s a young doctor named Danylo Zabolotny was carrying out a research with cholera germs at the University of Kyiv. 5. First they swallowed the new vaccine. 6. Danylo Zabolotny was a famous microbiologist who devoted his life to science. 7. There was an example of such courage in our country at the end of the last century. 8. He was trying to develop a vaccine that could be used to protect the disease. 9. Then they injected themselves with cholera germs.

Text 3

1. Read the information about A. Fleming:

a) underline any words that you do not know;

b) use a dictionary to translate them;

c) abridge the text by writing out only topical sentences;

d) get ready to speak about the important achievements and discoveries of Fleming.

ALEXANDER FLEMING

Alexander Fleming (18811955) came from a Scottish family of farmers. He was born in August, 1881, at Lochfield Farm, the youngest of eight children. He did research work at St. Mary's Hospital under Almroth Wright, pioneer of vaccine therapy, and became interested in bacterial action and antibacterial drugs. After military service, during which he was able to make further studies of the problems of infections and use of antiseptics, Fleming returned to laboratory work. He was interested in antibacterial tissues.

The first fruit of his search was the discovery of the lusoryme. His epochal discovery in 1928, of antibacterial powers of the mould from which peni-cillin is derived, was a great triumph. He found that a liquid mould culture, which he named penicillin, prevented growth of staphylococci. He died on March 11 1955 in London, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. He is known as the "father of antibiotics" and the brilliant medical student.

When he was fourteen Alec left home and went to live in London with his brother. Alec did not want to leave his happy country life, he would have liked to make farming his career. But his mother decided to send him to the Polytechnic School in London. Fleming also, shot, swam, and played water polo for the regiment. But he was never sent with the regiment to South Africa.

Fleming had to pass an examination before he could be allowed to enter a school of medicine. He took a few lessons and then sat for the exam. He passed on top, and became one of the most brilliant students the hospital had ever had. "When he is in a good humour, he is likely to give you a good mark", his teachers would say.

2. Fill in the suitable words. Try to work from memory:

1. A. Fleming was interested in bacterial... and antibacterial....

2. His epochal... in 1928, of antibacterial powers of the mould from which penicillin is derived, was a great....

3. A. Fleming is known as the "father of

Text 4

1. Read the text closely, define the main thought of each paragraph. Compose questions to each paragraph and be ready to answer your partner's questions.

H. BOERHAAVE

Herman Boerhaave of Leiden lived from 1668 to 1738. He was a Newton's contemporary.

As a student he became interested in mathematics and other sciences and on receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy in 1690, went on to take the M.D. in 1693. At first he was not successful and began to work as a teacher, giving lessons in mathematics. He also continued his various studies, paying particular attention to chemistry. At the age of 32 he became a lecturer in the university, and delivered lectures on the theory and practice of medicine. He found that many students were deficient in scientificknowledge and so began to give private courses in mathematics, mechanics, physics and chemistry. In 1709 he became professor of medicine and botany, in 1714 he also became professor of the practice of physics, physician to St. Augustine's Hospital and rector of the University. At the age of 50, he took' on the duties of the chair of chemistry as well.

For the next twenty years he remained in more or less complete control of teaching in medicine and the associated sciences. Boerhaave's reputation stood very high indeed during his lifetime and for many years afterwards. Something of this became known from the various anecdotes. A letter from the Far East addressed simply to "M. D. Boerhaave, Physician in Europe" was delivered without difficulty.

His medical works were read by Japanese in their Latin originals, and he was in correspondence with the Dutch and obtained seeds for his studies of plants and for the development of the university botanic garden.

After Newton died in 1727 Boerhaave's name became the greatest among living men of science.

One of his main aims was to raise the status of chemistry to that of the accepted academical sciences. In his theory he was concerned largely with inorganic materials and with physical chemistry and equally with vegetable, animal and mineral materials and with their physiological effects and importance in medical practice.

The Boerhaave's work on heat was also of great importance.

Fahrenheit of Amsterdam not only made special thermometers for this work but carried out some of the measurements for him. It is thus through Boerhaave that Fahrenheit scale became familiar and is still in use in many countries.

Of greater importance then the Fahrenheit thermometric scale was the effort Boerhaave made to introduce quantitative methods of study. He gave several measurements of degrees of heat and cold produced by the solution of substances in water and especially during chemical reactions. In his experiments he demonstrated quantitative methods of study. At the time he began these demonstrations it was commonly believed that milk contained an acid, that the acid caused coagulation, and that to make it fluid again heat or alkalis should be used. To examine this Boerhaave took fresh cow's milk. Neither smell nor taste, nor dropping it in the eye revealed any acid or any alkalis. He then heated milk at 160 Fahrenheit and collected an aqueous liquor. It contained a yellow mass. It had a sweet and pleasant taste, and gave no indication of the presence of acid or alkali. To demonstrate coagulation he diluted milk with a little water, brought it to the boiling point, and to portions of it added various mineral acids. Each time milk coagulated. Milk, he said, contained only little salt.

This is not an isolated example. Similar examinations were made of urine, blood, serum, egg albumen and other materials.

The full significance of Boerhaave's chemistry teaching was studied in many ways, especially in Scotland, France and Germany.

2. Fill in the suitable words. Try to work from memory:

1. At the age of 32 H. Boerhaave became a... in the University.

2. One of Boerhaave's main aims was to raise the status of... to that of the accepted academical sciences.

3. After Newton died in 1727 Boerhaave's name became the greatest among living men of....

3. Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences.

1. First antibiotic was discovered a) with cholera germs

2. Kyiv National Medical University b) takes its name after Bohomolets

3. D. Zabolotny carried out research c) field surgery

4. M. Pyrohov became a Doctor of Medical d) with Newton

Science e) by Fleming

5. H. Boerhaave was a contemporary f) at 22

6. Pyrohov in first created a new g) to raise the status of Chemistry

7. One of Boerhaave's main aims was


History of Medicine.

.

. Learn the following words.

ancient - , ;

healer ;

prayer ;

spell - ; ;

prescribe - ();

suggest ;

malpractice - ; ;

fracture ;

tumour ;

acupuncture - , ;

painkiller - ;

maintain ;

evil - ,;

cramp - , ; ;

technique - , ;

trephining - , ;

caesarean - ;

confidentiality - , .

1. Match the following Ukrainian word combinations with the English ones.

  common cold
  b medical discovery
  evil spirits
  d medical observation
  folk wisdom
  f medicine plant

2. Read the following sentences, find sentences in the Present Perfect Tense and translate them into Ukrainian.

1. Human anatomy is very important for the medical profession.

2. Medical science has achieved great progress since Middle Ages.

3. Ancient people thought that diseases were supernatural in origin.

4. The scientists have greatly improved many surgical procedures but some procedures discovered in prehistoric times are still in use today.

5. Acupuncture involves inserting needles into selective sites on the surface of the body.

History of Medicine: Part 1

Medical care is one of the oldest professions in the history of mankind. In ancient times people believed that diseases were caused by the evil spirits or due to the anger of the gods. So the earliest "cures" were prayers and use of magic.

In ancient civilization medical advice came not only from healers, but from the folk wisdom of many generations. Folk medicine prescribed a dirty sock around the neck if you wanted to cure the common cold or a pair of shoes placed upside down under the bed to relieve leg cramps. Tobacco juice was supposed to heal an earache and black pepper to cure asthma. Folklore was also full of warnings. Amulets were trusted medical devices.

However it is surprising that many medical ideas, techniques and medications which are still used today originated in civilizations hundreds and thousands of years old.

Some medical discoveries of curative value were made by prehistoric and ancient people. As far back as 10,000 years ago, prehistoric healers performed trephining, in which a hole was cut in the patient's skull to relieve pressure on the brain.

Fragments of pre-Christian Egyptian writing describe a routine scheme from the patient's symptoms to physical examination and then to suggested therapy and prognosis. The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, dated 2040 B.C., contains statements about the proper conduct of physicians and prescribes punishments for malpractice. In India, early medical people discovered the relationship between malaria and mosquitoes, the discovery of more than 700 medicinal plants and the invention of more than 100 surgical instruments was done in ancient times.

In the fifth century A.D., great Indian physician Susruta was treating fractures, removing tumors, and delivering babies by Caesarian section.

In China, acupuncture has been a part of Chinese medicine since ancient times. Originally it was used to treat diseases; nowadays acupunc-ture's effectiveness in controlling chronic pain has become more widely used. Scientists believe that the needles may stimulate the brain to produce morphine like painkillers called endorphins and enkephalins.

Hippocrates, the ancient physician commonly considered the father of medicine, was born in Greece in 460 B.C. He supposed that disease had only natural causes. Though its authorship is unknown, the famous Hippocratic Oath is named for him. His medical observations became well-known in the Western world and physicians are still required to take the Hippocratic Oath and they promise to maintain the utmost respect for human life and to respect the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Hippocrates was the first to separate art and science of medicine from the practice of religion.

In the second century A.D., Greek physician Galen insisted that the study of anatomy is a basis for medical facts.

. Language Development

1. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents.

1. ancient .
2. discovery b.
3. effectiveness .
4. describe d.
5. relieve e.
6. consider f.
7. trust g.
8. warning h.
9. pray .
10. observation j.

2. Form a noun from each verb below. Use a dictionary for help.

1 prescribe 5 treat
2 examine 6 cure
3 bleed - 7 breath
4 control 8 diagnose

3. Match the words that mean the same. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1.examine 2. illness 3. instruments 4. physician 5. procedure 6. prognosis 7. surgery a. prediction b. operation c. method, way d. utensils, tools e. inspect, look at f. disease g. doctor




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