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Pharmacy was born in old times when people started to search for remedies for ailment treatment. First European pharmacies appeared in 1100 in monasteries. Monks prepared remedies and supplied them to those who needed them free of charge. At the same time first prescriptions were created and they began with the words "Good luck". 100 years later first city pharmacies were opened in Venice. Specialists for those pharmacies were trained in accordance with widely accepted scheme: pupil Ч apprentice Ч master. Such a training process took 10Ч15 years (depending on the abilities of each person).

Until the end of the 9th century there were no pharmacies in Europe (pharmacies as com≠mercial entities) where a customer could order some remedies. So, people made their own "medicines" collecting and processing minerals and other ingredients.

The earliest ever found Pharmacopoeia Articles for different medicines were created and collected by monastery scientists. But monastic schools (where a phar≠macist was a therapist, a surgeon, a pharmacist and a professor combined) had no such scientific opportunities as offered by popular universities in Oxford, Sala≠manca, Prague, Heidelberg and other European cities. So, in the 13th century those Universities were at the height of their fame.

In the 15th century the term "provisor" (from Latin providere Ч to provide for) appeared for the first time. The first proper pharmacopoeia was launched in 1581 in Spain. Hundreds of private and polytechnic schools were opened throughout Europe, often headed or owned by pharmacists. The first educational establishments with a proper pharmaceutics course were opened in Montpelier (France), Padua, and Barcelona in the middle of the 16th century. The most complete reference books about the creation of pharmacies and pharmaceutical management were issued at the turn of the 19* century. At the same time pharmacist associations were founded in Paris (Societe Libre des Pharmaciens), in Berlin (Obercollegium Medicum et Sanitatis) in 1796, and in London (The Royal Apothecary School) in 1842. The practice of pharmacist training at universities was first introduced in France and England at the beginning of the 19th century. First of all the training was aimed at gaining knowledge and practical skills in preparation and use of medicines, but later educational courses started to include more theoretical subjects. This may be explained by the fact that in the course of the following decade pharmacies gradually lost their manufacturing functions and were more concentrated on selling medicines and advising patients.

2. Find in the text the English translations of the following words/word combinations.

ѕ≥дмайстер, орган≥зац≥€, припустимий метод, л≥карський зас≥б (л≥ки), майстер, виробництво, рецепти, хвороба, розкв≥т, виготовл€ти л≥ки, у в≥дпов≥дност≥ до, пров≥зор, х≥рург, створенн€ аптек.

Ask several questions covering the text.

Think of several sentences with the following word combinations.

In that case, just in case, that way, any other way.

Development of Pharmacy and Medicine in Ukraine.

–озвиток фармац≥њ ≥ медицини в ”крањн≥.

I. Vocabulary

Learn the topical vocabulary.

to acquire practical habits Ч to gain usual or normal practice by skill;

empiric knowledge Ч knowledge relied on observation and experiment, not on theory;

to introduce reforms Ч to bring them into use;

to master midwifery Ч to be trained how to help women in childbirth;

out-patient treatment Ч treatment when person visits a hospital but not lives there;

to set dislocations Ч to put a bone which is out of position back to its place.

Study the table.

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
practise practice practical practically
found foundation - -
master master-mind masterful masterfully

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