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Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box




imbalance fracture result from medical substances described personality acupuncture ancient renal

1. Greek physicians developed systems where health was thought to... a balance of natural forces.

2. The... Greek physicians made many compilations of plants and medicines.

3. The disease is a result of natural forces....

4. In the Roman world the Roman healer was entrusted with many... functions.

5. According to classical Greek medicine 4... (earth, fire, air and water) were reflected in the 4 bodily humors (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile).

6. There are 4... types sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic.

7. Present methods of setting... and treating trauma are comparable with those of Roman doctors.

8. Ancient doctors effectively used... in treating kidney problems.

9. The association of hardening of the arteries with high salt intake was... in the 3rd century B.C.

10. In Chinese medicine pulse examination was used to give measure of the imbalance of... function.

5. Say whether the following statements are true using: I'd like to tell, the thing is, it is necessary to note, first of all....

1. The scientific approach to medicine began in Dark Ages though there was lack of ability to understand and control the environment.

2. Dissection of cadavers helped the physicians to compile the first accurate textbook on human anatomy.

3. Since the first pharmacy was opened medications have become an accepted means of treating diseases.

4. Open heart surgery has been developed but organ transplantation is not always successful.

6. Read the text "History of Medicine: Part 2" and answer the following questions.

1. Why is the period from about 500 A.D. to about 1000 A.D. called Dark Ages?

2. When were many hospitals built in Europe?

3. What helped to publish the first accurate textbook on human anatomy?

4. When was the first pharmacy opened?

5. How did the invention of the microscope help physicians to make accurate diagnosis of a disease?

6. Who discovered the role of the heart and blood circulation?

7. When was the first blood transfusion performed?

8. What became a common medical practice in the 19th century?

9. What medical advances were achieved in the 20th century?

10. Do new diseases appear with people's change of their lifestyles and environment?

Translate the following sentences into English.

1. .

2. 700 .

3. , .


 

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Health care system in Ukraine, pharmaceutical

Education in Ukraine.

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I. Learn the following words.

challenge - , ; ; , ;

accessible ;

framework - , ;

mandatory - , ';

responsibility ;

facility - , ;

delivery - (); , ; ;

referral ;

entitle - ;

tertiary ;

dispensary - , ;

ambulance - , ;

phthisiatrician ;

accident - ;

publicly - , ;

orphanage - , ;

contradiction ;

expansion - , ;

aggravate ;

affordability - ( );

income .

1. Match the following terms with their definitions.

1. facility a. a specialist who treats patients with tuberculosis
2. ambulance b. an institution for orphans and abandoned children
3. phthisiatrician . a medical or surgical practitioner without full professional qualifications or status in some Eastern European countries
4. accident d. death or destruction on a large scale, as from war, plague, or famine; the number of deaths in a given period
5. orphanage e. an infectious disease that may affect almost any tissue of the body, esp. the lungs, caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis
6. accreditation f. something designed, built, installed, etc. to serve a specific function affording a convenience or service
7. feldsher g. a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually occur-
  ring in genetically predisposed individuals, characterized by inadequate production or utilization of insulin
8. tuberculosis h. certifying smth as meeting all formal official requirements; giving official recognition
9. diabetes a specially equipped vehicle for transporting the injured or sick
10 mortality j an undesirable or unfortunate happening that occurs unintentionally and usually results in harm, injury, damage, or even death

2. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Diabetes may result in excessive amounts of glucose in the blood and urine, excessive thirst, weight loss, and in some cases progressive destruction of small blood vessels leading to such complications as infections and gangrene of the limbs or blindness.

2. Healthcare in Ukraine is funded almost entirely by general government revenues; it makes up 7. 4percent of the fund; 3.2 percent of the fund is made up by social insurance contributions from the wages of the employed and 3.3 percent is funded by private clinics and their private patients.

3. The unemployed, old age pensioners and people on long-term sickness benefit or maternity leave have to pay healthcare contributions but not as much as an employed citizen.

4. Lots of government funded medical facilities are of a poor standard compared to Western standards; the medical equipment and facilities are in short supply compared to the high demand.

5. Many services, including doctors' and nurses' ones, unofficially cost a lot of money which makes health care in health centres not always affordable for the ordinary citizen.

6. Patients are admitted to hospital either through the emergency department or through a referral by their doctor.

7. A therapeutist examines a patient, assigns some treatment, prescribes some medicines and gives a medical certificate.

8. Ukraine's health care system is undergoing a complicated transition period.

9. The number of HIV/AIDS cases in Ukraine reduced by 200 or 3.9 % to 4,900 in the period of JanuaryNovember 2008, compared with the corresponding period of the previous year.

HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

Ensuring health care for the population is one of the key functions of the state set out in the 1996 Ukrainian Constitution, with Article 49 stating that "the state creates conditions for effective medical services accessible to all citizens".

Core components of the health care system in Ukraine include the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, responsible for setting national health policies, and certain specialized health care institutions directly managed and funded by it. The Ministry of Public Health is responsible for establishing the framework for the mandatory accreditation of public and private health facilities as well as licensing of health professionals and pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors.

Today, the heath care system is a complex multilayered system where responsibilities in health care sector are distributed among central government, 27 regional administrations, numerous municipal and district, township and village levels.

Primary health care facilities in Ukraine comprise more than 6500 facilities providing ambulatory patient care. The organization of primary care delivery is based on the territorial-district principle. There is no strict distinction between primary and secondary care in Ukraine. Patients may seek care by a specialist directly without formal referral by their district physician and this opportunity is widely used.

Organization of secondary outpatient care is based on the territorial principle, with each polyclinic being assigned a defined area. Area residents are entitled to full diagnostics, examination and appropriate treatment and may be referred to the tertiary level when necessary. Tertiary care is provided mainly in regional hospitals and dispensaries. Larger multi-specialty hospitals are usually located in larger cities and may offer a fuller range of services. Treatment may be provided by physicians from both outpatient and inpatient departments of heal' facilities.

Accident and emergency care is provided by mobile teams of physicians or feldshers. At present, ambulance stations face a number of problems due to insufficiently or poorly maintained vehicles, insufficient funds to provide teams with necessary medicines and equipment for emergency care.

The Ministry of Public Health developed a strategy for gradual transition to basing primary health care on family medicine. Convening all existing primary health care units according to the family medicine principle and setting up a network of general/family practices as proposed by the government program "Health of the Nation" will require substantial efforts.

Ukraine has one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world. About 1.63 percent of Ukrainian adults, or about 756,300 citizens, were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 but the statistics only reflected official cases. Another great challenge for the country is the continuing increase of tuberculosis rates. Every day in Ukraine specialists in tuberculosis (phthisiatricians) register about 100 new cases. One more serious problem is diabetes about 1 million people in Ukraine suffer from this disease.

Ukraine is considered to be in a demographic crisis due to its high death rate and a low birth rate. A factor contributing to the relatively high death is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking. The leading causes of death are cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, traumas, and accidents.

The majority of health care services are provided by publicly owned health facilities. Ukraine has more than 24,000 such institutions, including the national Sanitary and Epidemiological Service, spas and health resorts, health centers, orphanages, blood transfusion stations, centers for medical statistics, institutions for the training of heath personnel and for postgraduate training of physicians, research institutes and institutions for professional training of middle-level health staff. The network of private health facilities is being developed as well.

In general, the system of health care delivery in Ukraine faces contradictions. It maintains financial and economic mechanisms that stimulate further expansion of the health facilities network and an increase in capacity, while at the same time experiencing a sharp reduction of budgetary financing. The state in theory provides free healthcare for its citizens and long-term residents who become ill; however this is a serious problem for many parts of the country. Doctors' wages are extremely low and often ask for a fee. This makes healthcare difficult, as many citizens are on a low income, thus aggravating the problem of health care accessibility and affordability.

II. Language Development





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