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“рудные случаи перевода страдательного залога




ћожно выделить два типа глаголов, которые вы≠зывают трудности при переводе на русский, если они используютс€ в страдательном залоге:

а) глаголы, которые требуют после себ€ дополнени€ с предлогом и в русском переводе тоже имеют предлож≠ное дополнение, например: to depend on ( upon ) smth. Сзависеть от чего-л.Т; to deal with smth. Симеть дело с чем-л.Т; to refer to smth. Сссылатьс€ на что-л.Т и т. д. The phenomenon is referred to in many articles С Ќа это €вление ссылаютс€ во многих стать€хТ;

б) глаголы, за которыми идет беспредложное дополне≠ние, но которые в русском переводе требуют предложного, например: to answer smth. Сотвечать на Т; tofollow smth. Сследовать за чЄм-л.Т; to affect smth. Свли€ть на что-л.Т; to influence smth. Свли€ть на что-л.Т; to approach smth. Сподходить к чему-л.Т. Data analysis follows data gathering Сјнализ данных следует за сбором данныхТ.

ѕри переводе предложений, включающих оба типа глаголов в страдательном залоге, русское предложение следует начинать с предлога, например: It is quite evident that not every experiment can be relied upon С¬полне очевидно, что не на каждый эксперимент можно положитьс€Т; Many questions were answered correctly С Ќа многие вопросы были даны правильные ответы Т; The development of physics was greatly influenced by the discovery of radioactiv ity С Ќа развитие физики сильно повли€ло открытие радиоактивностиТ.

«а сказуемым в страдательном залоге могут сто€ть два предлога подр€д. ѕри переводе русское пред≠ложение надо начинать с первого, а второй отнести к обсто€≠тельству, сто€щему справа, например: The work is often referred toin special literature С Ќa эту работу часто ссылаютс€ в специальной литературеТ.

ѕри наличии в английском предложении однород≠ных сказуемых, выраженных глаголами в страдательном залоге, обычно в полной форме представлено только пер≠овое сказуемое, а второе (и, если есть, последующие) Ц только смысловой частью. ѕри переводе на русский €зык обычно (но не всегда) следует повторить подлежащее (замен€€ его во втором случае местоимением) дл€ каж≠дого смыслового глагола-сказуемого, например: Wood is much experimented upon and worked at in research institutes С древесиной проводитс€ много экспериментов, и над ней работают в научно-ис≠следовательских институ≠тахТ; Now questions can be asked and answered С“еперь можно задавать вопросы и можно давать на них ответыТ.

”пражнени€

”пр. 53. Cоотнесите предложение в страдательном залоге на английском €зыке с соответствующим ему предложением на русском €зыке.

1. A new house is being built in our street. ј Ќа нашей улице постро€т новый дом.
2. A new house is built in our street. Ѕ Ќа нашей улице строитс€ новый дом.
3. A new house has been built in our street. ¬ Ќа нашей улице строили новый дом.
4. A new house was built in our street. Ќа нашей улице построили но-вый дом.
5. A new house will be built in our street. ƒ Ќа нашей улице строилс€ новый дом.
6. A new house was being built in our street. Ќа нашей улице построен новый дом.

”пр. 54. ќпределите, какие предложени€ можно преобразовать в страдательный залог, а какие нельз€. ƒайте варианты преобразований.

1. They didn't ask her name. 2. Michael saw Mary in the park. 3. Has anyone answered your question? 4. They danced all night. 5. On Sunday evening we all met at my friend's. 6. Someone told us a funny story yesterday. 7. You can't park your car in the street before this office. 8. This kind of flowers doesn't bloom very often. 9. His parents have brought him up to be polite. 10. The plane from Los Angeles was several hours late. 11. The fire has caused considerable damage. 12. My shoes don't fit me. 13. People must obey the law. 14. He was having a bath. 15. A famous designer will decorate the hall.

”пр. 55. ¬ставьте в предложени€ предлоги by или with.

 

1. "The Goldrush" was directed... Charlie Chaplin. 2. These photos were taken Е a very cheap camera. 3. The gate was opened Е one of the girls. 4. The cake will be made Е my aunt. 5. The cake was made... dried fruit. 6. I was hit... an umbrella. 7. I was hit... an old lady. 8. The garage was painted... a new kind of paint. 9. The garage was painted... a friend of mine.

”пр. 56. —оставьте предложени€ по образцу, использу€ следующие глаголы: to discover, to invent, to write, to make, to sing, to compose, to design, to name, to build, to paint, to shoot.

ћодель: The telephone was invented by A. Bell.

Mickey Mouse Sir Christopher Wren
Penicillin Gustav Eiffel
St. Paul's Cathedral the Beatles
Oliver Twist Eric the Red
The Statue of Liberty Alexander Fleming
Yesterday Isaak Newton
Porgy and Bess Picasso
Gravity Walt Disney
America Charles Dickens
Guernica Columbus
Greenland George Gershwin

”пр. 57. ѕрочтите и переведите предложени€. ќпределите врем€ и залог гла≠гола-сказуемого.

 

1. The students were given a lot of work to do last month. 2. She was often spoken about. 3. I was told a very interesting story. 4. The way to the college will be shown to you by any student. 5. They have been discussing this question for the whole hour. This question is being discussed at the meeting. 6. They were listening to music when I entered the room. When I entered the room the lecturer was being listened to with great attention. 7. She has just written a letter. The letter has just been written by her. 8. His parents have bought a new TV set this week. A new TV set has been bought by them this week. 9. She showed me the text which her brother had translated. She showed me the text which had been translated by her brother. 10. He will have completed his experiment by the end of the month. We know that the experiment will have been completed by the end of the year. 11. He was interrupted by the ringing of the telephone. 12. He felt with satisfaction that he was being stared at. 13. She saw at once that nothing had been touched.

 

”пр. 58. ѕереведите пассивные конструкции с предлогами на русский €зык.

1. The article has been often referred to. 2. The listener was listened to with great attention. 3. The date of the visit was agreed upon at last. 4. In this hospital the patients are well looked after and provided with all the necessary medicines. 5. Their persistence in work was well thought of. 6. New taxation laws were widely commented on in press. 7. The problem of unemployment is only briefly touched upon in the paper. 8. Several changes in the factory management were brought about by important economic factors. 9. When they tried to put forward their proposal, they were only laughed at. 10. As soon as the fire broke out the firemen were sent for. 11. A radical change in the payment practices was insisted upon by the trade unions. 12. His skill and experience can be relied upon. 13. Differences in education must be taken into account when considering the job applications. 14. The cat was looked for everywhere. 15. Our arguments were listened to with great attention.

 

”пр. 59. –аскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в правильную видовременную форму (Present Indefinite Passive or Present Continuous Passive). ѕредложени€ переведите.

 

1. Papers (deliver Сдоставл€тьТ) usually at 8 in the morning. 2. Ц What strange sounds! Ц Oh, our piano (tune СнастраиватьТ). 3. Tea (lay СнакрыватьТ) usually on the balcony in fine weather. 4. We are finishing the last prep≠arations for the party: the lights (switch on), the floors (clean), the tables (lay). Do you think we'll be ready on time? 5. I've got two questions to you. First: "What language (speak) all over the world?" Second: "What language (speak) in this room?" 6. The old motor≠way (use) by many people, but it's not very convenient, that's why a new ring-road (build) in the city. 7. All the contracts (sign СподписыватьТ) by the President. 8. You can't use the fax now, it (fix СремонтироватьТ). 9. Ц What are you doing here in the hall? Ц My room (clean). 10. Most cameras (make) in Japan.

 

”пр. 60. –аскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в правильную видовременную форму (Past Indefinite Passive or Past Continuous Passive). ѕредложени€ переведите.

1. Many towns (destroy СуничтожатьТ) by fire in Italy last year. 2. The helicopter (construct) in Russia. 3. The pop singers arrived at the airport and (welcome СприветствоватьТ) by thousands of fans. Flowers (throw СбросатьТ) at them all the way to the exit. 4. The petrol tank (fill СнаполнитьТ) last week. 5. When I came to the skating-rink he (teach) to skate by his elder brother. 6. I drove up to the shop just as it (close), but the owner was kind enough to let me in. 7. They (award СнаграждатьТ) the highest prize. 8. She watched television while din≠ner (cook СваритьТ). 9. The windows look dirty though they (clean) yesterday. 10. The computer program was very easy. It (learn) in a couple of hours. 11. I (ask) a lot of questions about my work.

”пр. 61. –аскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в правильную видовременную форму (Past Indefinite Passive or Present Perfect Passive). ѕредложени€ переведите.

1. The decorations (complete СзакончитьТ) an hour ago. 2. The preparations for the party just (finish) and the guests are already arriv≠ing. 3. He (not/see) for a week already. 4. The paper (not/read) by anyone yet. 5. I'm happy as I just (allow СразрешатьТ) to stay here for an extra day. 6. She (teach) music in her childhood. 7. You ever (teach) to play chess? 8. I just (advise СсоветоватьТ) to keep to a diet. 9. The sportsmen (give) instructions before the match. 10. The sportsman (disqualify) some five months ago. 11. I can't believe my eyes! My book (publish) already! 12. I am not going to the party. I (not/invite). 13. The first baths (build) by the Romans. 14. Where is my bicycle? It's gone. It (steal СкрастьТ). 15. This room looks different. It (paint СкраситьТ) since I was last here? 16. Why have you come today? Ц The date of the meeting (change).

”пр. 62. »спользу€ страдательный залог, перефразируйте предложени€.

ћодель: Agatha Christie wrote many detective stories.

Many detective stories were written by Agatha Christie.

1. We gave our friend many interesting books for his birthday. 2. I returned the book to the library in time. 3. The teacher explained to us many important things. 4. We have just finished our work. 5. He has already solved his problems. 6. The teacher will allow Ann to translate the text by Monday. 7. We listened to the speaker very attentively. 8. The students will discuss my report next week. 9. The workers will build a new school in the village next year. 10. Someone wants you on the phone. 11. We cannot translate this text without a dictionary. 12. The Committee must discuss this question. 13. The workers can do it in a very short time. 14. The children can't finish this work today. 15. We couldn't send off the letter yesterday. 16. You must do it at once. 17. You may leave all the diction≠aries on the table. 18. They have to build this house in a year. 19. We must study this subject. 20. You can find books on this subject in our library. 21. We can easily translate this article. 22. You can find these figures in this handbook. 23. They had to do this work in two days. 24. The sellers are to deliver the goods at the end of May. 25. We shall finish the work not later than on Friday.

 

”пр. 63. –аскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в правильную видовременную форму в страдательном залоге. ѕредложени€ переведи≠те.

 

1. A doctor (call) and she (take) to hospital. 2. After she (examine) by a doctor, she went home. 3. She (give) a medicine and woke up two hours later. 4. Now her temperature (take) every two hours. 5. She (visit) by her parents every day. 6. Ќе (send) to Moscow next week. 7. This song (write) by our students. 8. She (teach) to play the piano at a music school. 9. Ann (ask) to come earlier. 10. We (invite) to his birthday party. 11. He (offer СпредлагатьТ) a new job. 12. My little brother (promise СобещатьТ) to buy a bicycle. 13. His new book (publish) next year. 14. Some new works by our pupils (show) at the local art gallery.

”пр. 64. ѕереведите предложени€. ќпределите врем€ глагола-сказуемого.

 

1. The new teacher was being waited for when the director came into the teachers' room. 2. The school mistress was leaving the school when a man came up to her. 3. A new school will soon be built for the children of our district. 4. The music school was still being built in our street when I came back from the army. 5. Some members of the British Parliament seemed asleep; others were talking to those who were sitting next to them. Members were coming in and out all the time and the bill was still being discussed. 6. The bell rang up but the texts were still being translated. 7. While an electric current is flowing, the wire is being heated. 8. This house was made of wood. 9. The delegation will be met at the station. 10. Peter was told to come near the table and sit down. 11. We have been told that he lives in Moscow. 12. My friend was offered a job at a mine. 13. A new film was being shown when we came to the cinema. 14. The house has been reconstructed this year. 15. The report will be followed by a discussion. 16. The book was looked for everywhere. 17. He was interested in these events. 18. They were solving a problem when I entered the room. 19. We have seen this film this week. 20. We saw this film yesterday. 21. My father has been working at the mine for 25 years. 22. This report has been listenedto with great attention. 23. I must go as I am being waited for.

 

”пр. 65. ¬ыделите глагол-сказуемое и определите врем€ и залог. ѕредложени€ переведите.

а) 1. The fission process was followed by the fusion one which releases even greater power. 2. The results of this scientist's work have been often referred to in special liter≠ature since his last experiment. 3. For centuries coal, oil, and water had been looked upon as the main sources of pow≠er before the new and more powerful source was discovered. 4. The further secret of the smallest known particle, the neutrino, will be dealt with at many research laboratories. 5. The new methods of investigating this mysterious particle can be relied upon.

b) Atomic energy is not new. Since the latter part of the nineteenth century scientists have been studying the atom hoping to learn how to free the great stores of energy.

In 1939 the discovery of fission opened the way to the great development that is now going on. The achievements of atomic energy are possible because of the atomic furnace Ц a nuclear reactor. The atomic furnace is being used to make steam for generating electricity and to produce flying pieces of radioactive materials which have shown the way to a completely different kind of atomic energy, this is fusion which releases even greater power than fission. However, our long search for an understanding of matter is not finished. There is still no final model of the atom. Man has yet to find the complete answer to nature's atomic secret.

 

”пр. 66. «амените следующие предложени€ в действительном залоге на страдательные конструкции.

a) 1. Lomonosov founded Moscow University in 1755. 2. A railway line con≠nects our village with the town. 3. The sailors will load the goods to-morrow. 4. The teacher corrects our compositions at home. 5. Pushkin wrote "Poltava" in 1828. 6. Thousands of people met the delegation at the railway station. 7. The director signs all financial documents. 8. The professor will carry on this experiment in his laboratory. 9. Architect Rastrelli designed the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. 10. The professor illustrated the lecture with diagrams. 11. Our scientists solved this problem many years ago. 12. Professor Brown will deliver lectures on history next month. 13. An old man interrupted their discussion. 14. A high wall surrounded the garden. 15. This mine produces very much coal. 16. Our laboratory uses this method widely. 17. Children often ask such questions. 18. The boy repeated the question. 19. They will test this machine to-morrow. 20. He will mention this fact in his report. 21. We are sure that we shall solve this problem in the near future. 22. The Committee discussed your plan at the session last week.

b) 1. Our teacher has recommended this book to us. 2. The director has signed the documents. 3. Professor Brown had described the work of the expedition. 4. They had prepared everything by six o'clock. 5. The profes≠sor is carrying on some very interesting experiments. 6. Very experienced en≠gineers are doing this work. 7. When we entered the office, the typist was typing the contract. 8. When we arrived, the legal adviser was checking the contract. 9. By that time everybody had forgotten that story. 10. The students haven't translated the article yet. 11. They are building a bridge over the river. 12. Mother has put the book on the shelf.

”пр. 67. ѕоставьте вопросы к выделенным словам и словосочетани€м.

1. The flowers have been kept without water for a week. 2. The walls are being covered with green paint. 3. Their children are not taken good care of at home. 4. This proposal will be thought over next week. 5. She has been told everything about this matter. 6. We were told the train would come nearly at two. 7. He was sent for very late. 8. This room has been done up for our return. 9. A new danger was being carried towards them by the river. 10. He will never be allowed into their house again. 11. June was greatly encouraged by his interest. 12. The autumn leaves were being whirled towards the sky. 13. The business has been taken over by a new company. 14. Two days later the operation was performed.

”пр. 68. ¬ыберите правильную форму (действительного или страдательного залога).

1. The book is being discussed / is discussing now. 2. The children are being played / are playing football in the yard. 3. This fact was mentioned / mentioned by many people. 4. Our car is usually repaired / repairs in Mike Anderson's garage. 5. The children have been put to bed/ will put to bed by their nurse. 6. All my questions were answered / will answer after classes. 7. The flowers will be watered / are watering in the evening. 8. My parents aren't approved of / don't approve of heavily made up girls. 9. The suitcases had been packed / had packed by 6 o'clock as the train started/was started at 7 p.m. 10. The house didn't live in / was not lived in in autumn and winter. 11. The garden looks after very well/ is well looked after. 12. Doctors send for / are sent for when people feel unwell.

”пр. 69. ¬ыберите правильный вариант перевода глагола-сказуемого русского предложени€.

1. —тать€ была переведена вчера.

a) is translated; b) was translated; c) has been translated.

 

2.  огда зазвенел звонок, стать€ переводилась сту≠дентами.

a) was translated; b) was being translated; c) were being trans≠lated.

 

3. —татью уже перевели, когда зазвенел звонок.

a) had been translated; b) has been translated; с) had translated.

 

4. —татью переведут завтра.

a) will be translated; b) is being translated; c) will have been translated.

 

5. Ќова€ станци€ метро была построена в этом году.

a) is built; b) was built; c) has been built; d) is being built.

 

6. Ќова€ станци€ метро строитс€ недалеко от моего дома.

a) is being built; b) is built; с) will be built.

 

7. Ќова€ станци€ метро будет построена к Ќовому году.

a) will be built; b) will have been built; с) has been built.

 

8. ќн чувствовал, что за ним след€т.

a) was followed; b) was being followed; с) is being followed.

 

9. ќн часто ссылаетс€ на ¬аши слова.

a) are referred to; b) refers to; с) are being referred to.

 

10.  акой материал они использовали дл€ строительства?

a) was being used; b) has used; с) was used.

”пр. 70. ¬ыберите правильную форму (действительного или страдательного залога).

1. The contract Е at the board meeting now.

a) is discussed; b) is being discussed; c) was discussed; d) was being discussed.

 

2. Wait a minute! The document Е by the secretary at the moment.

a) is typed; b) has been typed; c) was typed; d) is being typed.

3. The papers Е by the managing director yet. He is on business trip.

a) weren't signed; b) aren't signed; c) haven't been signed; d) weren't being signed.

4. She Е the Head of the Information Systems Department two months ago.

a) is appointed; b) is being appointed; c) was appointed; d) has been appointed.

5. Recently a new generation of TV sets Е in Japan.

a) is being launched; b) has been launched; c) was being launched; d) had been launched.

6. At present our company Е.

а) has been reorganized; b) is being reorganized; c) has reorganized; d) is reorganized.

 

7. The mail Е yet.

a) hasn't been received; b) isn't being received; c) wasn't received; d) isn't received.

 

8. From Monday English classes Е in the Training Centre.

a) are held; b) are being held; c) will be held; d) have been held.

 

9. We Е to send the documents by Friday.

a) were asked; b) were being asked; c) have been asked; d) had been asked.

 

10. At last a new government Е after a long governmental crisis.

a) is formed; b) is being formed; c) was formed; d) has been formed.

 

11. My car Е at the moment. Sorry, I can't give you a lift to the station.

a) is serviced; b) is being serviced; c) has been serviced; d) has being serviced.

 

12. All the teaching material Е after the classes start.

a) will have been provided; b) will be provided; c) provided have been; d) are provided.

 





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