Если действие в придаточном предложении предшествуетдействию в главном предложении (prior action), в придаточном предложении употребляется Past PerfectилиPast Perfect Continuous.


I knew (that) Bill had not had time to read my letter. Я знал, что Билл ещё не успел прочесть моё письмо.

We knew (that) they had been saving money since October. Мы знали, что они экономили деньги с прошлого года.


Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian:


Student A: Student B:



1. I looked at my watch and saw that we had been discussing the production plan for 3 hours.

2. It was not known where he had spent his early childhood.

3. When I saw Alec he boasted that he'd spent a month in the south.

4. When I met Mary I understood that she had been crying.

5. When I called on my friend the other day he said that he had been working at his report for a month.

6. She seemed to have forgotten what had happened a few minutes before.

7. The question was why he had sold the house.

Exercise 2. Make the actions in the following object clauses prior to those of the principal clauses.



1. What she could not understand was why he (to tell) them such a pack of lies.

2. Her mother had once confided to her that she (to want) to be an actress.

3. It was probably true that he (to be) quite fond of his late brother.

4. 14.1 wondered what she (to do) there so late at night.

5. When I came to the station I saw my cousin. I understood that she (miss) the 8 o'clock train.

6. Everybody praised the film. Mary was sorry she (not/see) it.

7. It was raining hard. Mrs. Parker regretted she (not/take) an umbrella.

8. My friend called on me yesterday. He boasted he (get) two tickets for the match.

9. Harry didn't come to the party. We thought he (not/receive) our invitation.

10. We wanted to know where she (be) all that time.

11. I found out that a professional singer (be engaged) for the concert some days before.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions expressing priority in the subordinate clauses.

e.g. Loretta passed all her exams in June, didn't she? (be glad; well).

Student A: Student B:




1. Jane found her cell-phone, didn't she? (explain; at her friend's)

2. Alice met John at a disco, didn't she? (boast; two days ago)

3. Linda danced a lot at the party, didn't she? (be happy; with Tom)

4. Did Ann go to the theatre on Sunday? (find out; with her boy-friend)

5. Did the boss force him into resigning? (complain; practically)

6. What did he do with his digital watch? (explain; sell; the day before yesterday)

7. Why did Grace join a drama club? (say; want to learn acting)

8. Why did she make so many mistakes in the test? (learn; not/work hard)

9. Why didn't she look very happy after her trip to Rome? (complain; not/see all the sights)

10. Why is she hoovering the room again? (explain; the dog; leave hairs all over)

Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g. I didn't think Mike would come with us. I knew he (see that performance before).

Student A:




e.g. Ann was angry with Andrew. She said she (wait for half an hour).

Student B:





1. When I came to the station I saw my cousin. I understood that he (miss the 8 o'clock train).

2. Alice was busy yesterday. She said she (type all day long).

3. Everybody praised the film. Mary was sorry she (not, see it).

4. It was raining hard. Mrs. Parker regretted that she (not, take an umbrella).

5. Jack was happy that he had got a ticket. He said he (stand in a queue for two hours).

6. I was sorry that Peter had failed his exam. I knew that he (prepa­re for it for a long time).

7. My brother called on me yesterday. He said he (buy tickets for the match).

8. Mother looked very tired when I returned home this afternoon. She said she (clean the flat).

9. I was surprised that Betsy didn't know the news. I was sure her husband (tell her everything).

10. Harry didn't come to the party. We thought he (not, receive our invitation).


3. Если действие в придаточном предложении относится к будущему времени, а действие главного предложения - к прошедшему, в придаточном предложении употребляется т.н. Future - in-the- Past (posterior action ).


I knew (that) Bill would come to see me after 10 P.M. Я знал, что Билл придёт ко мне после 10 часов вечера.

I was sure (that) the children would still be watching TV when I came. Я был уверен, что дети все еще будут смотреть телевизор, когда я приду.


Exercise 1. Transform the following sentences referring them to the past:

Student A: Student B:



1. Mother hopes that her junior son will be back tomorrow.

2. We are sure that it will be better to call at the Department store on our way home.

3. No one in the company can predict in what way the problem will be settled.

4. The editor insists that the article will be published immediately.

5. I have always believed that one day I will see him again.

6. There is an announcement in the local newspaper that the prices on consumer goods will rise next year.

7. The weather forecast says that it will pour with rain in two days’ time.

8. He predicts that he will discover the tiny particle during his next experiment.

9. He insists that the reforms will save the system, not destroy it.


Exercise 2. Open the brackets using the right adverbials.


1. A couple of weeks ago my son asked me to take him to the circus. I promised that we would go there (next week, the next week).

2. I ran into Mike last Sunday in a fast-food restaurant. He suggested that we should go to Paris (tomorrow, the next day).

3. The students understand they won’t be allowed to leave until (the next day, tomorrow).

4. John promised me some days before that he would call on my parents (next, the following) Sunday and tell them I was O.K.

5. They've announced that the exam on Linguistics will be put off till the end of (next, the next) term.

6. There was very strong hope that the wounded man would survive by (next, the next) morning.

7. This summer was very wet. (Next, the next) summer will even be wetter.

8. I intended to visit Helen in hospital last Friday, but her husband phoned me on Thursday and said that the doctors would discharge her from hospital (the day after tomorrow, in two days' time).

9. Last year he promised his wife that they would definitely spend (next, the next) summer at the seaside.

10. We arrived in Turin on Monday and decided that (next, the following) day we would leave for Rome.

11. I hope that we will leave for the South (next week, the next week).


Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g. I was out when my friend dropped in. I didn't think he (come so early).

I was out when my friend dropped in. I didn't think he would come so early.



1. On Friday I saw Lucy. I learned she (go abroad soon).

2. Nick didn't want to stay at his relatives'. He decided that he (put up at a hotel)

3. I felt worried. I was afraid Jane (be late).

4. There were a lot of good actors in the cast. I thought that the film (be interesting)

5. John came by train. I was sure he (fly).

6. The task was too dif­ficult for me. My friend promised he (help me).

7. Paul had already seen the play. He was sure we (enjoy it).


must ► must (or had to)
have to ► had to
can   ► could/would be able to (future reference)
may ► might
will ► would

Exercise 1. Transform the following sentences referring them to the past.


Student A: Student B:






1. She complains she mustpay all the money back at a time.

2. He thinks that as far as we have bought all the books we needn't go to the library.

3. The notice says that people mustn’t smoke inside the theatre..

4. My friend thinks I shouldget my car repaired.

5. We can’t believe that it may be so important, but it is.

6. It is clear that Helen needn't worry as Ken will not be late.

7. The coach says that I must train very hard to develop muscles like that.

8. We know the machine can perform two million calculations per second.

9. She is sure that good cooking can disguise the quality of the ingredients.

10. They explain that I should see the doctor first.

11. It is evident they can’t control the situation.



В придаточных предложениях определительных, сравнительных, причины и других.


My boss informed me about the work he is planning.

He was not able to pass his exams because he does not work hard.

It was not so stuffy yesterday as it is now.

Когда в придаточном предложении дополнительном речь идет об общеизвестных истинах, фактах, явлениях:


The teacher said that the ice melts when the temperature rises above 0ºC.

He explained to us very clearly how computers work.

В контексте настоящего времени (т.е. в беседе), когда в дополнительном придаточном сообщается фактическое, а не относительное время событий:


I've just phoned Steve.

What did he say?

He said there it was freezing hard in Paris yesterday.

Если информация, содержащаяся в придаточном предложении все еще соответствует действительности:


Agatha wrote to me saying that her father owns a factory.

Когда действия в придаточном предложении относятся к определенному моменту в прошлом, употребляется the Past Simple:


I knew that his son graduated from the Universityin 1988.

Exercise 1. Open the brackets, using proper tense forms. Explain why the rules of the Sequence of Tenses may not be observed in the following sentences:




1. Stella remarked that she (return) from the office a minute ago.

2. Paul was sure he (meet) Sarah in Moscow in July 2006, but he didn’t remember the exact date.

3. Nobody could imagine that the Earth (rotate) round the Sun before Galileo.

4. My brother was much thinner in his childhood than he (be) now.

5. What did Barbara complain just now about? — She complained that her tooth still (ache).

6. The advertisement read that the swimming-pool (be) free, but when we got there, we found we had to pay.

7. He rejected the job of an interpreter as he (not to speak) foreign languages well enough.

8. We discussed our holiday plans because we (have) a two-week leave in a month.

9. I couldn’t even think that the woman who (live) nextdoor was so friendly.

10. I was going to get a cup of coffee, but Reter just explained that the machine (be) out of order. It's going to be fixed tomorrow.

11. They announced on the radio that the Queen (come) here next month. Isn't that exciting?

12. When the Chairman spoke to reporters yesterday, he admitted that the company (be) now in a much better financial position.

13. I didn’t know that the man who normally (work) here was ill.



Unit 11. Conditionals


A. Zero Conditional

B. First Conditional

C. Second Conditional

D. Third Conditional

E. Mixed Conditionals

A. Zero Conditional


Условные предложения нулевого типа (Zero Conditional) выражают действия, относящиеся к настоящему времени. Этот тип предложений описывает то, что происходит всегда. Придаточное предложение начинается с if или when.




· If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.

· When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.

· If the weather is nice, she walks to work.

· Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.

· I read if there is nothing on TV.

· A: What do you do when it rains?
B: I stay at home.



A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney?
B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.


NB!!! If / When



· When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. (I regularly have days off from work)

· If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. (I rarely have days off from work)


Exercise 1: Put in If or When in the Zero Conditional sentences.

1. ________I am late to work, my boss gets very angry. That is why I am always on time.
2. ________I leave work, I usually go to the fitness center to work out.
3. ________ he eats, he tries to choose healthy foods.
4. His car is very reliable, and he rarely has any trouble with it. But he has had a couple of difficulties in the past. ________ his car breaks down or he has any problems, he calls the auto club.
5. His car is terrible! It always breaks down. ___________his car breaks down or he has any problems, he calls the auto club.
6. Mary gets a six-week paid vacation a year. She loves to travel. _______ she goes on vacation, she always goes somewhere exotic.
7. Diane works harder than anyone I know. I don't think she has taken a day off in three years. But she does really love to travel. ________ she goes on vacation, she goes somewhere exotic.
8. He loves going to the movies. _________he goes to the movies, he always gets a large popcorn with tons of butter.
9. She hates TV. She thinks television is a waste of time. _________she watches any television at all, it is usually a documentary or a news program.
10. My friend always keeps in touch by mail. _______I get a letter, I usually write back immediately.


Exercise 2: Match the items in column A with those in column B in order to make Zero Conditional sentences.




1. If you water your plants regularly, a) the tea tastes sweeter.

2. If you read newspapers, b) I get red spots on my skin.

3. If the sun shines, c) the game starts.

4. If you lie in the sun for a long time, d) you learn a lot.

5. If you add sugar to a cup of tea, e) she always phones me every evening.

6. When you do morning exercises every day, f) your skin turns red. 7. If you put a nail in a bowl of water, g) they die very quickly.

8. If you don’t look after tomato plants, h) snow melts.

9. When she travels abroad on business, i) nylon melts.

10. If I eat dairy products, j) the plants grow.

11. If you use a very hot iron on nylon, k) the nail sinks.

12. When you press this key, l) you feel healthy.


B. First Conditional (Real)

Условные предложения первого типа ( First Conditional (Real) выражают вполне реальные, осуществимые предположения и соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в изъявительном наклонении. Этот тип предложений иногда называется реальным условным. Оно описывает то, что произойдёт в реальной ситуации; действие относится к будущему времени.



· If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

· I will send her an invitation if I find her address.

· If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.

· If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

Exercise 1: Complete the First Conditional Sentences.


1. If you (eat) an ice-cream, I (have) a hot chocolate.

2. If she (need) a computer, her brother (give) her his computer.

3. If we (not have) time this afternoon, we (meet) tomorrow.

4. He (talk) to her if you (not want) to do it.

5. You (not win) the game if you (not know) the rules.

6. If you (wash) the dishes, I (cook) dinner tonight.

7. If my dad (have) time next week, we (paint) my room.

8. You (learn) a lot about American history if you (visit) the exhibition.

9. If the weather (not be) too bad tomorrow, we (play) golf.

10. We (not get) there on time if we (not catch) the bus.


Exercise 2: Match the items in column A with those in column B in order to make First Conditional Sentences.



1. If you send her your letter now, a) if she has time in the afternoon.

2. If I do this test, b) if you watch this scary film.

3. If I find your ring, c) if she doesn’t close the window.

4. Peggy will go shopping d) she will receive it tomorrow.

5. Simon will go to London next week e) she will leave him.

6. If her boyfriend doesn’t phone today, f) if he gets a cheap flight.

7. If they don’t study harder, g) they won’t pass their exams.

8. If it rains tomorrow, h) I won’t have to water the plants.

9. You will not be able to sleep i) I will improve my English.

10.Susan will catch a severe cold j) I will give it back to you.


Exercise 3: Complete the First Conditional Sentences by putting the verbs into the correct form.



Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to the party, but nobody's really keen on preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will also do something.


1. If Caroline and Sue (prepare) the salad, Phil (decorate) the house.

2. If Sue (cut) the onions for the salad, Caroline (peel) the mushrooms.

3. Jane (hover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim (move) the furniture.

4. If Bob (tidy up) the kitchen, Anita (clean) the toilet.

5. Elaine (buy) the drinks if somebody (help) her carry the bottles.

6. If Alan and Rebecca (organise) the food, Mary and Conor (make) the sandwiches.

7. If Bob (look after) the barbecue, Sue (let) the guests in.

8. Frank (play) the DJ if the others (bring) along their CDs.

9. Alan (mix) the drinks if Jane (give) him some of her cocktail recipes.

10. If they all (do) their best, the party (be) great.


Exercise 4: Answer the following questions using the words suggested.


Student A: Student B:





1. What shall we do if the weather is fine? (go skating)

2. What will the boy do if you take away his toys? (cry)

3. Where will you take your watch if it stops? (to a watchmaker)

4. What will happen if you lose your gloves? (buy a new pair)

5. What will you do if you feel hungry? (go to the canteen)

6. What will you do if you have a high temperature? (send for a doctor)

7. What will you do if you are late? (take a taxi)

8. What will you do if it rains? (take an umbrella)

9. What will you do if you cough? (take some tablets)

10. What will you do if it is very cold? (stay at home)

Exercise 5: Choose the right variant:

1. If I lose my job now, I...

a) start a business of my own.

b) will take a long holiday and apply for a new job later.



2. If he calls me 'lazy' again, I...

a) won’t ever help him again if he's in trouble.

b) go and tell his parents.


3. Philippa won't ever speak to me again if I …

a) let her down now.

b) will let her down now.


4. If the demand increases, prices...

a) rise.

b) will rise.


5. Our dog Gelert will start licking you if you...

a) pat him on the back.

b) will give it a cuddle.


6. Don't be offended. If Jane is annoyed, she...

a) will start yelling at people.

b) starts yelling at people.


7. If Jeremy doesn't answer the phone this time, I...

a) won't call again.

b) don't call again.



C. Second Conditional (Unreal)


Условные предложения второго типа (нереальные) (Second Conditional (Unreal) выражают невероятные или маловероятные предположения. Действие относится к настоящему или будущему времени.




If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.

· A: What would you do if you won the lottery?
B: I would buy a house.

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