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‘ункции инфинитива в предложении

‘ункци€ ѕример
1. ѕодлежащее. „асть сложного подлежащего. Indeed, to know him is to love him. ƒействительно, знать его значит любить его.   The delegation is expected to arrive tomorrow. ќжидают, что делегаци€ прибудет завтра.
2. —оставна€ часть сказуемого. The most important thing is to read a lot. —амое важное Ц это много читать.   They continued to discuss the matter. ќни продолжали обсуждать вопрос.   You must say it now. ¬ы должны сказать об этом сейчас.
3. ƒополнение. „асть сложного дополнени€. I invited Peter to come with us. я пригласил ѕетю поехать с нами.   I want you to join us. ћне хочетс€, чтобы вы присоединились к нам.
4. ќпределение. He had a great wish to see his mother again. ≈му очень хотелось снова увидеть свою маму.
5. ќбсто€тельство цели и следстви€. He went to the airport to meet his friend. ќн поехал в аэропорт, чтобы встретить друга.   He was too tired to listen to her. ќн так устал, что не мог слушать ее./ ќн был слишком усталым, чтобы слушать ее.

Exercise 8. Complete the following using the infinitive

a) as predicative:

1. All they do is...

2. To get straight to the best is...

3. The only safe and sane thing to do was...

4. What my father should do is...

5. My original idea was...

b) as subject:

1....is not my custom.

2....is quite unusual for her.

3....was the last thing any man wanted.

4....is a hardship.

c) as object:

1. I order...

2. I didn't mean...

3. Has your mother persuaded you...?

4. It occurred to me...

5. Don't bother....

d) as attribute:

1. He regretted his inability...

2. There is nothingЕ

3. His wife was the first...

e) as adverbial modifier of purpose:

1. The family had gathered...

2. She might have dropped in...

3. She bowed graciously and turned...

4. We climbed up the mountainЕ

5. He rose from his chair...

f) as adverbial modifier of result:

1. The novel was easy enough...

2. She was too sad...

3. He couldn't do enough...

4. He knew enough of the coun≠try not...

5. He was too astonished...

Exercise 9. Complete the following choosing a suitable in≠finitive from the list below.

1. But I quite see it is one of those things that have got....

2. Now we can get our heads together and... what is best....

3. Really it is too dreadful. One feels one must do something... oneself cheerful.

4. But nobody could... it for sure.

5. I'm going... my coffee now and I don't want... anybody.

6. Don't you think I'm old enough... of myself.

7. "Very good of you... me." He shook hands with them both.

8. "This story made me... of him at once," said Miss Marple.

9. You could taste the dirt in the air and it always seemed....

10. The whole town seemed....


to think, to ask, to take care, to have, to see, to be asleep, to be done, to keep, to do, to make


Exercise 10. Change the sentences using the Infinitive as part of a predicative.

Student A: Student B:


1. It's difficult to understand your humour.

2. It was not easy tо diagnose the illness.

3. It's hard to please people like you.

4. It's very hard to deal with my uncle.

5. It will be very hard to get along with him.



Exercise 11. Respond to the following. Supply a natural context.

Student A: Student B:


1. The novel is boring. I canТt read it.

2. She is a charming little creature. ItТs pleasant to look at her.

3. He is a shallow man. DonТt deal with him.

4. Jane is a very narrow-minded girl. I canТt talk to her.

5. My friend looks a new girl after the trip. I canТt recognize her.

6. Thе record is not to be had for love or money. You canТt get it.

7. It is hard to recognize my aunt.

8. It is hard to please her.

9. ItТs difficult to explain his behaviour.

Exercise 12. Translate into English.

1. ¬ этих ботинках очень удобно ходить. я ношу их уже два года.

2. ќн очень вспыльчивый человек. — ним очень трудно ладить.

3. ¬ам очень трудно угодить. ¬ы всегда придираетесь ко мне.

4. ћолодой человек отрастил бороду и усы, и его трудно узнать.

5. Ёто такое счастье - видеть теб€ здоровым и невредимым.

6. Ќаш план заключалс€ в том, чтобы отправитьс€ туда рано утром.

7. Ќаш долг - любой ценой спасти бесценные коллекции картин.

8. ” нее красивый низкий голос и ее при€тно слушать.

9. Ќа ваш вопрос трудно ответить. ¬ы поставили мен€ в тупик.

10. –еку опасно переплывать в этом месте, лучше пройти по мосту.

11. ѕочти невозможно заставить его употребл€ть активный словарь.

12. ¬рач сказал, что эту мазь очень сложно приготовить.

13. ќн говорит так быстро, что его трудно пон€ть.

Exercise 13. Complete the following sentences.

1.... that is the question.

2.... is to believe.

3.... is my aim in life.

4.... would be madness.

5. It makes me feel good...

6. It was unnatural...

7. It annoyed them...

8.... is everybody's wish.

9. What I want is...

10. The main point is...

11. To travel means...

12. The only thing to do was...

13. To tell a white lie is...

14. To live is...

15. To be up to date means...

16. The secret of life is...


Exercise 14. Combine the sentences so as to use the infinitive.

A: Mr. Simpson is very old. He can't work.

Mr. Simpson is too old to work.


B: My cousin plays the violin well. He can give a concert.

My cousin plays the violin well enough to give a concert.


1. The apple you gave me is so sour. I can't eat it.

2. She is still young. She can't travel to London alone.

3. He was very late. He didn't catch the 12:30 train.

4. You don't know the poem well. You can't recite it in front of the class

5. He was very far. He couldn't see what they were doing.

6. The water in the lake is very cold. I can't bathe.

7. You are very quick. You can easily catch up with the group.

8. You don't understand it. You are too young.

9. You are clever. You can answer any question.

10. The weather is warm. We can go out.

11. This tea is too hot. I can't drink it.

12. You were too angry. You couldn't speak.

13. It is so foggy today. I can't drive the car.

14. He has recovered. He can attend classes.

15. He is strong enough. He can climb up this mountain.

Exercise 15. Make up sentences using the following infinitive phrases parenthetically.

Student A:




1. to start with;

2. to make a long story short;

3. to say honestly;

4. to tell the truth;

5. so to speak;

6. to be quite truthful;

7. to go into particulars;

8. to be more exact



The Complex Object (—ложное дополнение)


¬ английском €зыке после некоторых переходных глаголов употребл€етс€ конструкци€, называема€ Complex Object (сложное дополнение).

Complex Object обычно состоит из существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимени€ в объектном падеже и инфинитива с to или без to, что зависит от глагола-сказуемого.


He wants you to help him.

ќн хочет, чтобы вы помогли ему.


He asked Ann to show him the letter.

ќн попросил јню показать ему письмо.


I saw Peter give her the book.

я видела, как ѕет€ дал ей книгу.


 онструкци€ Complex Object чаще всего переводитс€ на русский €зык дополнительными придаточными предложени€ми, вводимыми союзами как, что, чтобы.


1.  онструкци€ Complex Object с инфинитивом с to употребл€етс€:


а) после глаголов, обозначающих умственную де€тельность:

to think, to consider, to believe, to know в значении Ђсчитать, полагатьї

to expect Ц Ђожидать, полагатьї

to suppose Ц Ђполагать, предполагатьї

to find Ц Ђнаходить, полагатьї

to un≠derstand Ц Ђполагатьї и др.


I don't expect them to get back before next Tuesday.

я полагаю, что они не вернутс€ раньше следующего вторника.

I understood you to have finished the job.

я полагал, что вы уже закончили работу.


The coach found the young goal-keeper (to be) very skilful.

“ренер считал, что молодой вратарь - очень опытный (игрок).


б) после глаголов и сочетаний, выражающих желание, ожидание:

to wish, to want, should (would) like и др.


I wish the matter to be settled today.

я хочу, чтобы этот вопрос был разрешен сегодн€.


IТd like you to help me with the translation.

ћне хотелось бы, чтобы вы помогли мне сделать перевод.


в) после глаголов, обозначающих принуждение, приказ, разрешение, просьбу: to order, to force, to tell, to ask, to allow и др.


Ќе told his assistant to get everything ready.

ќн велел (приказал) своему помощнику все подготовить.


The customs officer asked the young man to open his suitcase.

“аможенник попросил молодого человека открыть чемодан.




1. ѕосле сказуемого, выраженного глаголами to consider, to find, to understand и др., глагол to be в конструкции Complex Object часто опускаетс€.


Everyone considered him a very kind man.


2.  онструкци€ Complex Object с инфинитивом без to употребл€етс€:


а) после глаголов физического воспри€ти€:

to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to notice и др.


For a while he watched the clerk check other people in.

¬ течение некоторого времени он наблюдал за тем, как администратор оформл€л других приезжих.


Everyone heard the assistant-manager apologize to him.

¬се слышали, как помощник управл€ющего извинилс€ перед ним.


б) после глаголов to make, to let:


I wonder what made him withdraw his proposal.

»нтересно, что заставило его сн€ть свое предложение.


Don't let the boy disturb her while she is working.

He позвол€йте мальчику беспокоить ее в то врем€, когда она работает.


Exercise 16. Insert the particle to in constructions with the infinitive where necessary.

1. The room made him... feel embarrassed.

2. They want me... run out.

3. I heard him... go downstairs.

4. She could not bring herself... tell him about Vesta.

5. Paul felt his heart... melt.

6. Suddenly he saw her... rise and... turn away.

7. At first he believed them... be married.

8. The colonel ordered everyone... wear a gas mask.

9. I forced him... eat, and after luncheon I made him... lie down.

10. I told the driver... take me to the hospital fast.

11. I never knew him... stand and... look at that beautiful, calm face.

12. She suddenly observed Richard... emerge from the drawing-room.

13. Did you see Miss Perbmarch... enter or... leave the house?

14. She persuaded him... see a doctor.

Exercise 17. Form objective predicative constructions with the infinitive.

Student A:




1. He wanted to call you, but I persuaded (he, to wait) until morning.

2. I cannot allow (you, to throw) away an enormous property like this.

3. Then she turned to the window and asked (me, to open) it.

4. Now, can I trouble (you, to come) in here?

5. I saw (my mother, to pause) and (to put) her hand to her forehead.

6. She laughed and I heard (she, to strike) a match.

7. Old Jolyon saw (his brother's face, to change).

8. Maybe I could get (he, to pay) her seventy-five a week.

9. She hated (people, to guess) at her poverty.

10. He flushed indignantly but forced (him≠self, to answer).

11. They expected (I, to say) clever things.

Exercise 18. Respond to the following:

Student A: Student B:

1. My new friend is a great football fan. (to shout for)

2. My mother is always steady and full of common sense. (not to lose her temper)

3. John is a very experienced motorist. (to drive in a race)

4. I think Ann will make an outstanding pianist. (play the piano)


Exercise 19. Answer the questions.

Student A: Student B:


1. Have you ever heard your friend complain of smth or seen her lose her temper?

2. Are you a football fan? Do you often go to the stadium to see your favourite football team play? When did you see your team win a game? (lose a game) What are your impressions of the match?

3. Have you ever watched the sun rise and set? What did you feel watching the sun rise (set)?

4. What do you feel when you are taken ill with the flu? Do you feel your limbs ache? Do you feel your heart hurt?

5. Have you ever seen Plisetskaya dance on the stage? Why do people like to watch her dance? When did you see her dance? Did you see her dance on TV?

Exercise 20. Make up dialogues to the model.

Student A: Student B:



1. I'm anxious to have a new pair of shoes for summer wear. (to wish)

2. I am keen on oranges, mum. (to like)

3. I wonder if you have booked tickets for the plane. (to intend)

4. Jack is mad on hockey and is anxious to learn to play it. (to want)

5. What will you order for dinner? Is there salmon on the menu? (like)

Exercise 21. Recast the following sentences so as to use objec≠tive predicative constructions with the infinitive.

Student A: Student B:



1. They required that I should arrive at 8 a.m.

2. The judge ordered that the prisoner should be released.

3. I believe they are very good at physics

4. He felt that she was unreasonable and unjust.

5. He knew he was a bad leader.

6. I think his father is one of the heads in Universal Stores.

7. He thought I was just a kid to be ordered.

8. I don't expect you'll think of me.

9. I think both of you are too simple to be dishonest.

Exercise 22. Complete the following so as to use objective pre≠dicative constructions with the infinitive.

Student A:




1. She saw two of the girls...

2. She felt the wind...

3. Andrew Manson considered his work...

4. They had nothing but a desire to make a dream...

5. He watched and suddenly he saw her...

6. Well, I let them...

7. The window was open, and he could hear some≠body...

8. Will you come over and watch me...

9. You will allow me...

10. I don't order anybody...


Exercise 23. Paraphrase the following:

Student A: Student B:


1. I think that the book is perfect.

2. DonТt you find that the painting is a masterpiece?

3. I knew that he was an ordinary man.

4. The fans expected that their team would win the game.

5. I believe that it is true.

6. We thought that the lecture was highly useful and instructive.

7. The teacher considered that my answer was incorrect.


Exercise 24. Paraphrase the following. Use the OI— after the verbs: to make, to have, to get.


Model A: He insisted that I should go to the doctor to have my blood pressure tested.

He got me to go to the doctor to have my blood pressure tested.

Model B: The teacherТs approval caused me to feel happy.

The teacherТs approval made me feel happy.

Model C: The captain insisted that the soldiers obeyed his order.

The captain had the soldiers obey his orders.


1. The familiar melody caused me to feel sad.

2. The manager told the secretary to send the letters airmail.

3. It's not easy to persuade him to drive slower.

4. He insisted that I should accept the vacancy at their office.

5. She persuaded me to buy the records of Beethoven.

Exercise 25. Transform these sentences according to the models.

a) Did he remind them about the meeting?

Yes, I heard him remind them about the meeting.

1. Did the doctor write out a prescription? (to see)

2. Did she tell Peter she was grateful for his help? (to hear)

3. Did Ann beat the record? (to watch)

4. Did he take his temperature before dinner? (to make)

b) Should I book tickets for the nine o'clock train?

Yes, I want you to book tickets for the nine o'clock train.

1. Should the boy be examined by the doctor? (to want)

2. Should she take part in the figure-skating competition? (should like)

3. Should I reserve a table by telephone? (to want)

4. Should I get in touch with him today? (should like)

c) Do you expect that he'll become a brilliant figure skater?

Yes, I expect him to become a brilliant figure skater.

1. Do you expect that the competition will attract a lot of people?

2. Did you expect that John would go in for swimming?

3. Did you expect that she would give a brilliant performance?

4. Do you think that he'll help us with our packing?


Exercise 26. Translate into English using objective predicative constructions.

1. ќна видела, что он вз€л эту книгу.

2. я не хочу, чтобы вы приходили так рано.

3. ¬ы заметили, как она ушла?

4. я ожидаю, что она вернетс€ около п€ти.

5. ќн не слышал, как его дочь вошла в комнату.

6. ≈го мать хочет, чтобы он стал врачом.

7. я не спала и слышала, как она вышла из комнаты.

8. „то заставило его отказатьс€ от этой поездки?

9. ћы предполагаем, что она быстро догонит группу.

10. ¬се считают ее умной и трудолюбивой.

11. ћы любим, когда он нам рассказывает интересные истории.

12. я не имела в виду, чтобы вы заучивали этот текст наизусть.

13. я хочу, чтобы вы были более внимательны.

14. я подозреваю, что он вз€л мою книгу.

15. я заставила ее выучить это стихотворение наизусть.


Complex Subject (—ложное подлежащее)


1. Complex Subject состоит из грамматического подлежащего и инфинитива, сто€щего после сказуемого. ћежду подлежащим и инфинитивом существует логическа€ св€зь:


He is expected to come back tonight.

ќжидают, что он вернетс€ сегодн€ вечером.


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