Example: What must be done with a bad tooth? (pull out) – A bad tooth must be pulled out.

1. What has to be done with dirty crockery and cutlery at the end of a meal? (wash up)

2. What should happen if mistakes appear in a student’s work? (point out)

3. What might happen if you crossed a busy road without looking? (knock down)

4. What would happen to a lighted candle if there were a sudden gust of wind? (blow out)

5. What may happen to a man who gas committed his first offence? (let off)

6. What happens to traffic in a traffic jam? (hold up)

7. What happens to workers if they become redundant? (lay down)

8. What must be done if a plan or an idea proves unworkable? (give up)

9. A notice has disappeared from a noticeboard. What must have happened? (take away)

10. I dropped a $1 note in the street, and can’t find it. What could have happened to it? (pick up)



Unit 9. The Sequence of Tenses.


В английском языке время глагола в придаточном предложении зависит от времени, в котором употреблен глагол в главном предложении. Употребление времен в придаточных предложениях, главным образом дополнительных, подчиняется следующим правилам согласования времен:

I. Если глагол в главном предложении имеет форму настоящего или будущего времени, то в придаточном предложении может употребляться любое время, которое требуется по смыслу.


I am disappointed that you have failed in Maths.

In some days I will know for sure where we will spend our summer vacations.

They have informed us that the police coped extremely well.

II. Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в одном из прошедших времен, то и глагол в придаточном предложения также должен стоять в одном из прошед­ших времен (включая Future-in- the-Past).

Примечание: Если в предложении несколько придаточных, правила согласования времен применяются к каждому из них.


He exсlamed he was unhappy you were in quarrel with him.

She admitted that she was aware what kind of problem would arise.




Table 1:

Present Simple ► I know that she usually cleans the flat herself. Past Simple I knew that she usually cleaned the flat herself.  
Present Continuous ► I know that she is cleaning the flat now. Past Continuous I know that she was cleaning the flat then.  
Present Perfect ► I know that she has cleaned the flat. Past Perfect I knew that she had cleaned the flat.  
Past Simple ► I know that she cleaned the flat last week. Past Perfect I knew that she had cleaned the flat the previous week.  
Future Simple ► I know that she will clean the flat next week. Future Simple-in-the-Past I know that she would clean the flat the next week.  
Table 2:    
today, tonight here ►that day, that night ►there  
now this, these tonight yesterday the day before yesterday ►then ►that, those ► that night ►the day before/the previous day ►2 days before yesterday  
2 years ago last night, week, month, etc. ►2years before ►the night, week, etc., before/the previous night, week      
tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year, etc. ►the following day /the next day ►in two days' time ►the following week /the next week/year, etc.  


Если действие в придаточном предложении происходит одновременно с действием в главном предложении (simultaneous actions), в придаточном предложении употребляются Past Simple либо Past Continuous.


I knew that he played tennis every day. Я знал, что он ежедневно играет в теннис.

I knew that he was playing tennis and I didn't want to disturb him. Я знал, что он играет в теннис, и мне не хотелось его беспокоить.


Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

Student A: Student B:



1. She could not imagine what he was doing there alone.

2. I forgot what he looked like.

3. I did not know whether the doctor was experienced enough.

4. What surprised me was that Pat was so much at home there.

5. He asked me what work I was doing.

6. I was surprised you knew my name.

7. He told his father that he made ten dollars a week.

8. She informed everyone who phoned her that she was unwell and did not leave home.

9. He admitted that he felt lonely in London.

10. She warned me that it was dangerous to walk in the park alone.

Exercise 2. Change the verb in the principal clause into a past tense and make the necessary changes in the subordinate clause.

Student A: Student B:




1. Everybody knows that Susan is strict about keeping things tidy.

2. I forget that she is always letting people down.

3. What he is saying is not true.

4. Mary complains that she is bored with the same old routine day after day.

5. He knows that his grandparents always go to church on Sundays.

6. He wants us to see that he is not hostile.

7. We know that the bridge is unsafe.

8. She can't understand why they are trying to talk her into taking a dance course.

9. My sister agrees that she needs a shoulder to cry on.

10. I can tell from her face that she is lying.

11. We know that the company is reorganizing its departments.


Exercise 3. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.


1. My daughter wanted to see the new film. She found out that many good actors (star) in it.

2. She complained that Jack always (get) on her nerves.

3. We were not sure that Paul would find Mary. We were afraid he (not/know) her address.

4. I didn't introduce Jack to Helen. I was sure they (know) each other, but it appeared they didn't.

5. It was a pity he no longer (care) in the least about Pat.

6. He proved to everyone's satisfaction that the drug (be) effective and harmless.

7. I knew she usually (get) in such a fuss before people (come) to dinner.

8. The Johnsons were away. We learnt that they (travel) about Canada.

9. She stayed in the whole evening. We were sure she (expect) guests.

10.I met Judy in the department store the other day. She explained that she (look) for a nice T-shirt for herself.

11.She mentioned to her colleagues that she (think) of retiring.


Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g. I didn't want to phone Mary at that late hour. I knew she (go to bed early).

Student A:


e.g. The Petrovs were away. We learned that they (travel in the Caucasus).

Student B:


I gave that stamp to Peter. He said he (collect stamps).

1. I saw Andrew at the bus-stop some minutes ago. He said he (wait for Jane).

2. When I phoned Victor the other day he was out. His sister told me he (play tennis in the park).

3. We made up our minds to spend the holidays in the mountains. We thought it (be a great idea).

4. I met Judy in the department store. She said she (look for a winter coat).

5. We sent a ticket to Mr. Smith. We knew he (be keen on ballet).

6. My brother wanted to see that film. He said that many good actors (star in it).

7. We were not sure Paul would find Mary. We were afraid he (not, know her address).

8. When I came home yesterday my brother was busy. I saw that he (pack his things).

9. I didn't introduce Jack to Helen. I was sure they (know each other) but it appeared they didn't.


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