Answer the following questions. 1. What major glands does the endocrine system include?

1. What major glands does the endocrine system include?

2. What body processes do hormones affect?

3. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?

4. What non-endocrine organs also produce and release hormones?

5. What is the function of the hypothalamus?

6. What gland is considered the most important part of the endocrine system? Explain why.

7. What hormones does the pituitary gland produce?

8. What is the role of thyroid hormones?

9. What hormones do the adrenal glands produce? What is their function?

10.What does testosterone regulate?

11.What is the function of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone?

12.What is the role of the pancreas?

Fill in the table consulting the text.

Gland Hormones Function

3. Say whether the following sentences are true or false.

1. The foundation of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands.

2. Hormones work very fast.

3. The hypothalamus is located in the lower central part of the brain.

4. The pituitary gland is considered the less important part of the endocrine system.

5. Prolactin controls the menstrual cycle in women.

6. The thyroid is shaped like a bowtie or butterfly.

7. Parathyroid hormone regulates the level of potassium in the blood.

8. Epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.

9. The gonads are the main source of sex hormones.

10. The pancreas produces five important hormones.

IV. Speaking.

Make up a dialogue between an endocrinologist and a diabetes patient. Here is useful vocabulary.

QUESTIONS Do you feel fatigue recently? Have you lost any weight? Do you have any trouble with your eye sight? Is there any change in the frequency of urination? INSTRUCTIONS You have to do daily exercises and control your weight. You should monitor your glucose level, and control your blood sugar level regularly. You have to do injections of insulin every day.

V. Supplement.


1. Read and translate the following text. Get ready to comment such
serious endocrine system disease as diabetes.

2. Find key sentences in the text and write a short summary.


Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition caused by the failure of,the body to regulate the blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels are regulated by insulin produced in the pancreas.

Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes1.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include fatigue, thirst, weight loss, blurred2 vision and frequent urination. Some people have no symptoms. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help to control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.

Type 1 diabetes. When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes (previously known as juvenile diabetes3) occurs. Symptoms include excessive thirst, hunger, urination, and weight loss. In children and teens, the condition is usually an autoimmune disorder in which specific immune system cells and antibodies produced by the immune system attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. The disease can cause long-term complications including kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness4, and early coronary heart disease and stroke. To control their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes complications, people with this condition need regular injections of insulin.

Also remember the following information connected with the level of insulin: Low levels of insulin and high sugar intake increase the blood sugar that leads to hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar). This usually develops over a number of days. This can be controlled with diet, insulin injections or tablets. Too much insulin or too little sugar can cause hypoglycaemia.

Hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia can be recognized as follows:

  HYPERglicaemia HYPOglycaemia
Amount of insulin used Not enough Too much
Deterioration Gradual Very quick
Hunger Absent Present
Vomiting Common Uncommon
Thirst Present Absent
Breath odour Fruity/sweet Normal
Pulse Rapid and weak Rapid
Breathing Rapid Normal
Skin Dry and warm Pale, cold and sweaty
Seizures Uncommon Common
Consciousness Drowsy Rapid loss


1gestational diabetes

2blurred ,

3juvenile diabetes



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