Get ready to discuss the problem of heart attacks


Each year over a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack. Those symptoms include:

Shortness of breath.

Chest discomfort pressure, squeezing1, or pain.

Discomfort in the upper body arms, shoulder, neck, back.

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lightheadedness2, sweating.

Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary artery blocks the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Often this leads to an irregular heartbeat called an arrhythmia that causes a severe decrease in the pumping function of the heart. A blockage that is not treated within a few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die.

Heart attacks occur most often as a result of a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD). In CAD, a fatty material called plaque builds up over many years on the inside walls of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart). Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture, causing a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the part of the heart muscle fed by the artery.

During a heart attack, if the blockage in the coronary artery isn't treated quickly, the heart muscle will begin to die and be replaced by scar tissue. This heart damage may not be obvious, or it may cause severe or long-lasting problems. Severe problems linked to heart attack can include heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats).

Acting fast at the first sign of heart attack symptoms can save your life and limit damage to your heart. Treatment is most effective when started within 1 hour of the beginning of symptoms. If you think you or someone you know may be having a heart attack:

Call an ambulance within a few minutes 5 at the most of the start of symptoms.

If your symptoms stop completely in less than 5 minutes, still call your doctor.

Take only an ambulance to the hospital. Going in a private car can delay treatment.

Take a nitroglycerin pill if your doctor has prescribed this type of medicine. Once at the hospital, doctors can perform several tests to quickly determine if the person is having or has had a heart attack and the best course of action to restore blood flow.

Each year, about 1.1 million people in the United States have heart attacks, and almost half of them die. CAD, which often results in a heart attack, is the leading killer of both men and women in the United States. Many more people could recover from heart attacks if they got help faster. Of the people who die from heart attacks, about half die within an hour of the first symptoms and before they reach the hospital.

But you can help reduce your risk of heart disease by taking steps to control factors that put you at greater risk. Heart-healthy nutrition3, daily physical activity, eliminating tobacco, controlling diabetes and a commitment to follow your healthcare professional's recommendations (including for cholesterol and high blood pressure) are all part of reducing your risk for heart disease, heart attack and stroke.


1 squeezing ,

2 lightheadedness

3 nutrition

3. Read the text closely and answer the questions.

1. What exactly is a heart attack?

2. Is it important to know the symptoms of a heart attack? Why?

3. Name the main symptoms of a heart attack.

4. As a result of what condition do heart attacks occur most often?

5. Describe the clinical picture of coronary artery disease.

The Digestive System.


I. Vocabulary.

1. Read and learn the topical vocabulary.

digestion ;


saliva ;

esophagus ;

stomach ;

gastric juice ;
duodenum ;

small intestine ;

gall bladder ;

bile ;

liver ;

pancreas ;

large intestine ;

cecum ;

sigmoid colon .

2. Learn some more terms denoting digestive system elements.

Alimentary canal (the digestive tract) the series of muscular structures through which food passes while being converted to nutrients and waste products; includes the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, and small intestine.

Pancreas an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from it help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine.

Liver a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins.

Peristalsis rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary you cannot control it.

Gall bladder a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine.

3. Read and memorize some interesting facts.

→ The movement of food in the intestines of a healthy person may last from 12 to 72 hours.

→ The amount of gastric juice secreted in the stomach within 24 hours is 1.52 litres.

→ 1.7 liters of saliva is made in your mouth for one day.

→ The human stomach contains about 35 million small digestive glands.


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