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Answer the following questions. 1. What are the functions of the muscles?




1. What are the functions of the muscles?

2. How many kinds of muscle do humans have?

3. Where is skeletal muscle attached to bone?

4. Why are skeletal muscles called striated?

5. What is the second name of smooth muscle?

6. Can we consciously control our smooth muscles?

7. Can you give examples of smooth muscles?

8. Where can we find cardiac muscle?

9. Cardiac muscle is an involuntary type of muscles, isn't it?

10. By what system the movements of our muscles are coordinated and controlled?

3. Say whether the following sentences are true or false.

1. Bones work alone, they don't need help from the muscles and joints.

2. The human body has more than 650 muscles.

3. Skeletal muscles hold the skeleton together, give the body shape, and help it with everyday movements.

4. Smooth muscles are made of fibers and looks striated.

5. The walls of the heart's chambers are composed almost entirely of muscle fibers.

6. The involuntary muscles are controlled by structures deep within the brain
and by the brain stem.

7. The voluntary muscles are regulated by the hypothalamus.

 

4. Complete the sentences with the words given below.

1. Muscles pull on the joints, allowing us to....

2. Muscles are connected to bones by....

3. Skeletal muscles can control their....

4. Smooth muscles are also called....

5. Cardiac muscles are also found in....

a) movement, b) tendons, c) heart, d) move, e) involuntary

5. Fill in the table:

Muscles Situation Functions Contraction
Skeletal muscle      
Smooth muscle      
Cardiac muscle      

Text 2

1. Learn some terms describing the pathological conditions of the skeletal
system.

2. Read the text. Be ready to answer the questions after reading.

SKELETAL SYSTEM DISORDERS

Arthritis is not just a word doctors use when they talk about painful, stiff joints. In fact, there are many kinds of arthritis, each with different symptoms and treatments. Most types of arthritis are chronic. That means they can go on for a long period of time. Arthritis can attack joints in almost any part of the body. Some forms of arthritis cause changes you can see and feel swelling, warmth, and redness2 in your joints. In some the pain and swelling last only a short time, but are very bad. Other types cause less troublesome symptoms, but still slowly damage your joints. Older people most often have osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or gout.

Osteoporosis is a disease marked by reduced bone strength leading to an in≠creased risk of fractures3. Osteoporosis is the major underlying cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and the elderly. Fractures occur most often in bones of the hip, spine, and wrist, but any bone can be affected. Osteoporosis is often called a "silent disease" because it usually progresses without any symptoms until a fracture occurs or one or more vertebrae collapse. Collapsed vertebrae may first be felt or seen when a person develops severe back pain, loss of height, or spine malformations4 such as a stooped or hunched posture. Bones affected by osteoporosis may become so fragile that fractures occur spontaneously or as the result of minor bumps, falls, or normal stresses and strains such as bending, lifting, or even coughing.

Scoliosis causes a sideways curve5 of your backbone, or spine. These curves are often S- or C-shaped. Scoliosis is most common in late childhood and the early teens, when children grow fast. Girls are more likely to have it than boys. It can run in families. Symptoms include leaning to one side and having uneven shoulders and hips. Sometimes the curve is temporary. People with mild scoliosis might only need checkups to see if the curve is getting worse. Others might need to wear a brace or have surgery.

Osteomyelitis is the medical term for an infection in a bone. Infections can reach a bone by travelling through your bloodstream or spreading from nearby tissue. Infections can also begin in the bone itself if trauma exposes your bone to germs. Bone infections commonly affect the long bones of your body, such as your leg bones and upper arm bone, as well as your spine and pelvis. Osteomyelitis often occurs in children as an acute condition. In adults, osteomyelitis may occur as either the acute and chronic form. Once considered incurable, osteomyelitis can be success≠fully treated today. Still, osteomyelitis is a serious condition, requiring aggressive treatment to prevent spread of your infection and to save the affected bone.

Notes:

1 stiff Ч негнучкий, нееластичний

2 redness Ч почервон≥нн€

3 fracture Ч перелом

4 malformation Ч неправильна будова

5 curve Ч кривизна, вигин





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