III. Post-reading activites

1. Answer the following questions.

1. Why does the body need energy?

2. Where does the process of digestion begin?

3. What happens after the food is swallowed?

4. What juice accelerates the digestion of food?

5. What is the way of food after it passes the stomach?

6. Where does the blood distribute the nutrients?

7. What happened in the small intestine?

8. Can you name the organs which are not part of the alimentary canal, but
these organs are essential to digestion?

9. What happened after the food passes into the large intestine?

2. Put the sentences in the right order.

a) The partly digested food passes from the stomach into the small intestine.

b) Waste products are eliminated from the body.

c) Digestion begins in the mouth.

d) After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine.

e) After the food is swallowed, it passes through the esophagus to the stomach.

3. Match the terms and their definitions.

1. A digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine. 2. Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. 3. The flap at the back of the tongue that keeps chewed food from going down the windpipe to the lungs. 4. Glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. 5. The opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the body. 6. A small sac located on the cecum. 7. The first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. 8. Largest region of the large intestine, divided into four sections: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid. 9. Roof of the mouth, divided into hard and soft portions, that separates the mouth from the nasal cavities. 10. Small projections on the upper surface of the tongue that contain taste buds.


a) appendix; b) papilla; c) colon; d) bile; e) salivary glands;

f) anus; g) palate; h) chime; i) epiglottis; j) mouth

4. Study some terms denoting digestive system disorders, but first match the terms and their definitions.

1. Hepatitis 2. Gallstones 3. Appendicitis 4. Ulcer (digestive) 5. Cirrhosis 6. Anorexia nervosa a) Eating disorder usually occurring in young women that is characterized by an abnormal fear of becoming obese, a persistent aversion to food, and severe weight loss. b) Inflammation of the appendix. c) Chronic disease of the liver in which normal liver cells are damaged and then replaced by scar tissue. d) Solid crystal deposits that form in the gall bladder. e) Inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by a virus. f) Any sore that develops in the lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.



5. Write a short summary of the text.

IV. Speaking.

Make a dialogue between a gastroenterologist and a patient. Here is vocabulary for you to speak about digestive tract problems.

QUESTIONS Do you have any pain in your abdomen? Have you lost your appetite? Do you have any difficulties in swallowing? Did you feel sick recently? Have you lost/put on weight? Do you have regular bowel movements? How often do you go to the toilet? Have you noticed any blood in your stools? INSTRUCTIONS Please lie down on your back and rest both arms alongside your body. Now I want to tap on your belly. When I push here and let loose suddenly, does it hurt? Please relax and try to let your belly go soft.  

V. Supplement.

Text I

1. Read the information about one of the most frequent pathological conditions in the digestive system.

2. Make a plan of the text.

3. Abridge the text by writing out only topical sentences.



A digestive ulcer is any sore1 that develops in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (sores in the lower esophagus occur less frequently). Because these sores form in areas where gastric juice is present, they are generally referred to as peptic ulcers (pepsin is an enzyme in gastric juice). Peptic ulcers found in the stomach are more specifically called gastric ulcers. Those in the duodenum are called duodenal ulcers. Of the two, duodenal ulcers are the most common type, accounting for about 80 percent of all digestive ulcers. They tend to be smaller than gastric ulcers and heal2 more quickly. Any ulcer that heals leaves a scar.

The symptoms for gastric ulcers include feelings of heartburn3, nausea, weight loss, and stomach pain. That pain is described as gnawing, dull, aching, or resembling hunger pangs. About one-third of those individuals suffering from gastric ulcers are awakened by pain at night.

The symptoms for duodenal ulcers differ slightly. They include heartburn, stomach pain that is relieved by eating or antacids, and a burning sensation at the back of the throat. Pain is most often felt two to four hours after a meal. Citrus juices, coffee, and aspirin bring on pain more quickly. About 50 percent of individuals suffering from duodenal ulcers are awakened by pain at night.

Before the 1980s, physicians believed ulcers were caused by several factors including stress and a poor diet that resulted in excess stomach acid. Medical research has since shown that a certain bacterium that can live undetected in the mucous membrane of the digestive tract is the culprit4. This bacterium (called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)) irritates and weakens the lining, making it more susceptible to damage by gastric juice. About 95 % of duodenal ulcers and 70 percent of gastric ulcers are caused by this bacterium.

Treatment for peptic ulcers includes antibiotics to eliminate the bacterium and other drugs to reduce the amount of gastric juice secreted in the stomach. Very few ulcers fail to respond to the medications that are currently used to treat them. Also you should remember some points to prevent ulcers: Don't smoke.

Avoid anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Avoid caffeine and alcohol (or have them only in small amounts and on a full stomach).

Avoid spicy foods if they cause heartburn. Reduce stresses and modify your lifestyle.


1 sore , ,

2 to heal ,

3 heartburn

4 culprit

4. Answer the following questions.

1. What is digestive ulcer?

2. How do we call peptic ulcers found in the stomach?

3. Ulcer found in the duodenum are called duodenal ulcers, aren't they?

4. What is the most common type of ulcer?

5. Is there any differences between the symptoms for gastric ulcer and duodenal one?

6. What is the cause of ulcers?

7. What is the treatment for peptic ulcer?

8. How can we prevent ulcers?

5. Fill in the table. Compare your answers with your partner's.

Peptic ulcers WhatIhave learned from the text about the topic
Ulcer symptoms  
The cause of ulcers  
Treatment for peptic ulcers  
The prophylaxis of ulcers  

6. Make a dialogue between a doctor and a patient, who has ulcer symptoms. Act it out.

Text 2

1. Read and translate the information which will help you to keep your digestive system healthy.

2. Define the main idea of the text.

3. Divide the text into sense groups. Entitle them.



4. Write a short summary of the text.



The body is wholly dependent on the digestive system to provide it with nutrients fluids, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals it needs to continue functioning. If the digestive system fails to do this because of malfunctioning, the entire body suffers.

A healthy lifestyle will keep the digestive system sound. This includes the following: a proper diet, regular exercises, maintaining a healthy weight, no smoking, moderate drinking, and reducing stress.

To help your digestive system you have to follow a proper diet. In general, foods should be low-fat (this especially concerns saturated fats), low cholesterol, and high fiber. Fiber is especially important in maintaining the work of the intestines. Fat should make not more than 30 % of a person's total daily calorie intake. Breads, cereals1, pastas, fruits, and vegetables should form the bulk of a person's diet; meat, fish, nuts, and cheese and other dairy products should make a lesser portion. Drinking fluids, especially water, helps to move material through the digestive system.

Tapeworms2 are parasites (organisms that live in or on other kinds of organisms) that live in the intestinal tracts of some animals. There are three major species of tapeworms that can infect humans. They are typically acquired from eating raw or imdercooked beef, pork, or fish. The tapeworm eggs develop into larvae3 in the infected animals and fish. When humans eat the meat from those animals and fish without properly cooking it, they become infected. The tapeworm travels to the intestine, attaching itself to the inner lining by hooks on its head. If not treated, the tapeworm may stay in the intestine for years, absorbing nutrients through its outer covering. It may grow up to 30 feet (9 meters) in length.

Most individuals infected with a tapeworm have no symptoms. Some, however, may experience pain in the upper abdomen, diarrhea, unexplained weight loss, and weakness. A tapeworm's eggs or worm body parts that appear in an individual's feces are often the only sign of an infection.

Tapeworms are easily treated with medication. Practicing good hygiene and avoiding raw or undercooked meat or fish are important steps in preventing a tapeworm infection.

Long-term ingestion of cigarette fumes4, excessive alcohol, and spicy foods can cause serious damage to the digestive system. Toxins that are taken into the body by way of the mouth are absorbed by the digestive tract and transported to the liver, which can suffer permanent damage. Many medications can injure the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Medicines in pill or capsule form should always be taken with plenty of water.

Teeth are an important, yet often overlooked, part of the digestive system. They begin the entire process of digestion. Oral hygiene is, therefore, a primary concern. The best way to prevent tooth decay is to brush the teeth at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and snack. The teeth should also be flossed daily to help prevent gum disease. Minor irritations of the digestive system are common. Occasional diarrhea, constipation, or excessive gas is to be expected. Often, they are treated with nonprescription drugs. However, if these or any digestive problems persist, they should not be ignored and medical attention should be sought.


1 cereal

2 tapeworm ; '

3 larva (pi. larvae)

4 fume




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