Say whether the following statements are true or false

1. The framework of bones is called the skeleton.

2. The forehead is one of the parts of the chest.

3. The skin covers the body.

4. The legs are upper extremities.

5. The spleen is the part of the face.

6. The most important muscle in the body is the heart.

7. Bronchi are part of the skeleton.

8. Hemoglobin is a protein found in white blood cells.

Fill in the gaps with the words from the box.

bladder kidney spleen liver kidney organs gall bladder

To examine the patient for enlarged abdominal (1) first feel for the (2)... and the (3)... on the right side. To do this, ask the patient to take a deep breath, while pressing with the fingers upwards. Next, feel for the right (4)... and then cross over to the other side for the left (5).... Still on the left side, palpate for an enlarged (6).... Finally, moving to the lower abdomen, feel for the (7) which is only felt if it is full.

8. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the principal parts of the human body?

2. How many parts does the head consist of?

3. What does the skull contain?

4. What does the face consist of?

5. What is there in the mouth?

6. What are the principal parts of the ear?

7. What connects the trunk with the head?

8. How is the upper part of the trunk called?

9. What are the principal organs in the chest?

10. What are the principal organs in the abdominal cavity?

III. Speaking

l. Can you do these tasks on your own?

  Yes No Need more information
Tell how many teeth (eyes, ears, tongues, fingers, knees, thumbs, arms, shoulders, wrists, feet, cheeks, lips, chins, gums, lungs, kidneys, extremities) man has
Tell what the organ of thinking (sight, hearing, smell, taste) is
Explain what we do with- our eyes (ears, nose, tongue, fingers)
Say if the liver (heart, gullet, stomach, blad-" der, lung, spleen, gall bladder, kidney, intestine) is an internal or an external organ
Say if the thigh (calf, ankle, foot, knee, wrist, elbow, hand, shoulder, forearm) is a part of the upper or the lower extremity

2. Tell about the functions of the organs as in the example.

With the eyes we can see things.
  are able to    
  are capable of seeing  


The eyes are used to see.
have the ability for seeing.

A Bit of Humour

"The doctor said he'd have me on my feet in a fortnight." "And did he?"

"Sure, I've had to sell my car."

Dentist (to a talkative patient): "Open your mouth and shut up."

"It's one thing to itch for something and another to scratch for it."

The Musculoskeletal System.

ʳ-' .

I. Vocabulary.

1. Read and learn the topical vocabulary.

bone ;

cartilage ;

tendon ;

ligament ';

joint ;

skull ;

jaw ;

sternum (breastbone) ;

rib ;

vertebra ;

pelvis ;

coccyx ;

limb ;

extremity ;

humerus ;

ulna ;

radius ;

clavicle ;

scapula ;

femur ;

tibia ;

fibula ;


muscles '.

2. Read and memorize some interesting facts about the human skeleton.

The longest bone in your body is your thigh bone (the femur) it's about 1/4 of your height.

The smallest is the stapes in the middle ear which is only 2.8 millimeters long.

You have over 230 movable and semi-movable joints in your body.

Did you know that humans and giraffes have the same number of bones in their necks? Giraffe neck vertebrae are just much, much longer!

3. Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones:

1. connective tissue )
2. pectoral girdle b)
3. pelvic girdle )
4. hematopoietic system d)
5. bone marrow )

4. Find substitutes for the following terms:

1. Skull a) 7 vertebrae located in the neck, below the skull.

2. Lumbar vertebrae b) 4 fused vertebrae located below the sacrum.

3. Coccyx c) 5 vertebrae located below the thoracic vertebra and

4. Thoracic vertebrae above the sacrum.

5. Cervical vertebrae d) 5 fused vertebrae located below the lumbar region and

6. Sacrum above the coccyx.

e) the bones in the head that protect the brain.

f) 12 vertebrae in the mid-back, below the cervical

vertebra and above the lumbar vertebrae.

II. Reading.

Read the text.


The skeleton and muscles function together as the musculoskeletal system. This system (often treated as two separate systems, the muscular, and skeletal) provides form, stability, and movement to the human body. It is made up of the body's bones (the skeleton), muscles, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue (described as the tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together). The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system

2. Read and translate the following text. Get ready to speak on the structure of the human skeleton using the pictures and anatomic terms.


From our head to our toes, our bones provide support for our bodies and help to form our shape. The skull protects the brain and forms the shape of our face.

The spinal cord, a pathway for messages between the brain and the body, is protected by the backbone, or spinal column.

The average human adult skeleton consists of 206 bones, attached to the muscles by tendons. Babies are bom with 270 soft bones about 64 more than an adult. These will fuse together by the age of twenty or twenty-five into the 206 hard, permanent bones. Bone building continues throughout life, as a body constantly renews and reshapes the bones' living tissue.

The skeleton has two main parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the spine, the ribs and the sternum (breastbone) and includes 80 bones. The appendicular skeleton, consists of 126 bones, includes two limb girdles (the shoulders and pelvis)and their attached limb bones.



Axial skeleton (80 bones)

- skull consisting of 1) the cranium (which encloses and protects the brain) and 2) the facial skeleton;

- jaw the only freely movable bone of the skull;

- ribs, sternum (breastbone) comprising the "thorax'Vchest, protecting the heart and lungs;

- vertebral column the "spine".

The vertebral column transmits the body weight from the head, thorax, and abdomen to the lower extremities and encloses and protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column has three groups of vertebrae and two sets of fused bones. These vertebrae include seven cervical (neck) vertebrae, twelve thoracic (upper back) vertebrae, and five lumbar (lower back) vertebrae.

Five fused vertebrae form the sacrum and from three to five fused small vertebrae form the coccyx (tail bone). The vertebrae form a column of bone that protects the spinal cord. The thoracic vertebrae have facets (indentations) upon their surfaces that articulate (meet) with the ribs. The ribs form a cage that shelters the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and pelvis helps to protect the bladder, intestines, and in women, the reproductive organs. Although they're very light, bones are strong enough to support our entire weight.

Appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle, the upper limbs, pelvic girdle, the lower limbs (126 bones, 64 in the shoulders and upper limbs and 62 in the pelvis and lower limbs):

- the pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula;

- upper extremity (the humerus, ulna, radius, the hand);

- pelvic girdle consists of two hip bones; each hip bone forms from fused bones. The two coxae, sacrum, and coccyx form the pelvis, a bowl-shaped cavity that supports and protects many abdominal organs;

- lower extremity (the femur, the tibia, the fibula, the foot).

Bones are fastened to other bones by long, fibrous straps called ligaments. The joints allow the bones to move. Cartilage, a flexible, rubbery substance in our joints, supports bones and protects them where they rub against each other.

Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen. Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support body weight. Bones also store calcium and release some into the bloodstream when it's needed by other parts of the body. The amounts of certain vitamins and minerals that you eat, especially vitamin D and calcium, directly affects how much calcium is stored in the bones. The soft bone marrow inside many of the bones is where most of the blood cells are made.


III. Post-reading activities.

1. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the function of bones?

2. How many bones does the average human adult skeleton consist of?

3. Why does bone building continue throughout life?

4. What main parts has the skeleton?

5. What bones does the axial skeleton consist of?

6. What bones does the appendicular skeleton include?

7. What is the function of the vertebral column?

8. How many vertebrae has the vertebral column? Name them.

9. What bones do form a cage that shelters the heart, lungs, liver and spleen?

10.What organs does the pelvis help to protect?

11.How long does the process of ossification continue?

12.What minerals are bones made up of?

13.Why do our bones need calcium?

2. Fill in the blanks with the words given under the line.

1. Our bones provide... for our bodies.

2. The skull protects the....

3. Bones of the skeleton begin to develop before....

4.... is the only freely movable bone of the skull.

5. The vertebrae form a column of bone that protects....

6. The pectoral girdle consists of the... and scapula.

7. Most of the blood cells are made in the soft... inside many of the bones.

8. Bones are fastened to other bones by....


a) bone marrow; b) birth; d) clavicle; e) support;

e) the spinal cord; f) jaw; g) ligaments; h) brain

3. Group the words according to the skeleton parts.


Hand, pelvis, skull, the tibia, jaw, coccyx, ulna, femur, rib, humerus, the cranium, thoracic vertebrae, foot, scapula, breastbone.

4. Put proper numerals in the blanks.

a) There are... bones in the appendicular skeleton.

b) There are... vertebrae in the cervical part of the spine.

c) There are... bones in the pelvis and lower limbs.

d) There are... vertebrae in the lumbar part of the spine.

e) There are... bones in the shoulders and upper limbs.

f) There are... vertebrae in the thoracic part of the spine.

g) There are... bones in the axial skeleton.

h) There are... vertebrae in the sacral part of the spine.


5. Read and memorize the English idioms containing some topical words. Make your own sentences with the idioms.


a bone of contention a subject of disagreement or argument

to make no bones about (saying/doing) smth to say/do it openly and without hesitation or preference, although or may not be pleasant


to keep smb at arm's length to avoid becoming too friendly with him

to welcome smb/smth with open arms to welcome him/it with enthusiasm -


to get smth off one's chest to admit or tell smth to smb which was worrying one and which one did not want to talk about previously because it was unpleasant ;


to break the back of smth (usually of a job or some kind of work) to

finish the greater or most difficult part of the work

to stab in the back to act disloyally to a person, esp. when this comes as a shock to him ;

to see the back of someone (informal) to see him for the last time (with relief); to get rid of him because he causes annoyance etc. -

to have no backbone to have no courage, to be easily disheartened

to go behind smb's back to do or say smth expressly without his knowledge

to do smth behind smb's back to do it without his knowledge or when he is not present

IV. Speaking.


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