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III. Post-reading activites. Answer the following questions




Answer the following questions.

1. What is the function of the respiratory system?

2. Why is oxygen required by cells in the body?

3. How can we define the respiratory system?

4. What is external respiration?

5. Can you describe internal respiration?

6. What is the way of air after it enters the body through the nose?

7. What is the other name of the larynx?

8. Where does the exchange of gases take place?

9. What is the difference between the two lobes of lungs?

10.What is the pleura?

11.Describe the process of inspiration and expiration.

2. Fill in the blanks.

1. Epiglottis prevents... from entering the trachea.

2. Bronchi branch into smaller... known as bronchioles.

3. Alveoli are surrounded by a network of thin walled....

4. The lungs are large, lobed, paired organs in the....

5. The bottom of the thoracic cavity is formed by the....

6.... is the mechanics of breathing in and out.

 


a) chest, b) capillaries, c) food, d) diaphragm, e) tubes, f) ventilation

 

3. Enumerate the main stages of the breathing process.

4. Match the anatomical terms and their definitions.

1. Lymph tissue at the top of the throat. When they enlarge and interfere with breathing, they may be removed.

2. Lymph nodes in the wall of the throat (pharynx) that often become infected. They are part of the germ-fighting system of the body.

3. A flap of tissue that guards the entrance to the windpipe (trachea), closing when anything is swallowed that should go into the esophagus and stomach.

4. The voice box. It is the place where moving air being breathed in and out creates voice sounds.

5. The passage leading from the throat (pharynx) to the lungs.

6. The two membranes, actually one continuous one folded on itself, that surround each lobe of the lungs and separate the lungs from the chest wall.

7. The smallest subdivisions of the bronchial tubes, at the end of which are the air sacs or alveoli.

8. Very small air sacs that are the destination of air breathed in.

 


a) epiglottis, b) trachea, c) pleura, d) bronchioles,

e) tonsils, f) alveoli, g) adenoid, h) larynx

5. Read and discuss the information obtained.

Smoking can damage your lungs and here's how: when a person breathes in cigarette smoke, he or she breathes in hundreds of chemicals including tar, nicotine, hydrogen cyanide, and arsenic. Tar will remain inside the air ways and paralyze the millions of tiny hairs (Cilia) that line your lungs and sweep out any dirt and germs that you breathe in. A single cigarette can stop cilia from moving for 20 minutes or more.

Problem questions.

1. What do you think of people who smoke?

2. Do you consider it cool or simply a bad habit?

3. Has the attitude to smoking changed in our country over the past few years? What has changed?

4. Why do you think the number of smokers is increasing?

5. Is it possible to change the situation about smoking? How?

IV. Speaking.

Make a dialogue between a pulmonologist and a patient. Here is vocabulary for you to speak about respiratory system problems.

QUESTIONS Are you short of breath? Have you noticed any wheezing when you breathe? Do you cough up any sputum/ phlegm/spit? What colour is it? Have you coughed up any clots of blood? INSTRUCTIONS Could you please strip to your waist? Fd like to exam your chest and lungs. I would like to listen to the sounds in your chest; sorry if the stethoscope is a bit cold. Now breathe through your mouth. Take a deep breath, hold your breath for a few seconds and let out the air again.

V. Supplement.

Text 1

1. Read and translate the text.

2. Write out the key sentences of the text. Be ready to speak about the clinical manifestations of pneumonia.

PNEUMONIA

Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi1. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, one-third of all people who developed pneumonia subsequently died from the infection. Currently2, over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year in the United States. Over a half a million of these people are admitted to a hospital for treatment. Although most of these people recover, approximately 5 % will die from pneumonia. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.

Some cases of pneumonia are contracted by breathing in small droplets3 that contain the organisms that can cause pneumonia. These droplets get into the air when a person infected with these germs coughs or sneezes. In other cases, pneumonia is caused when bacteria or viruses that are normally present in the mouth, throat, or nose inadvertently4 enter the lung. During sleep, it is quite common for people to aspirate secretions from the mouth, throat, or nose. Normally, the body's reflex response (coughing back up the secretions) and immune system will prevent the aspirated organisms from causing pneumonia. However, if a person is in a weakened condition from another illness, a severe pneumonia can develop. People with recent viral infections, lung disease, heart disease, and swallowing problems, as well as alcoholics, drug users, and those who have suffered a stroke or seizure are at higher risk for developing pneumonia than the general population.

Once organisms enter the lungs, they usually settle in the air sacs of the lung where they rapidly grow in number. This area of the lung then becomes filled with fluid and pus5 as the body attempts to fight off the infection.

Most people who develop pneumonia initially have symptoms of a cold which are then followed by a high fever, shaking chills, and a cough with sputum production. The sputum is usually discolored and sometimes bloody. People with pneumonia may become short of breath. The only pain fibers in the lung are on the surface of the lung, in the area known as the pleura. Chest pain may develop if the outer pleural aspects of the lung are involved. This pain is usually sharp and worsens when taking a deep breath, known as pleuritic pain.

In other cases of pneumonia, there can be a slow onset of symptoms. A worsening cough, headaches, and muscle aches may be the only symptoms. In some people with pneumonia, coughing is not a major symptom because the infection is located in areas of the lung away from the larger airways.

Children and babies who develop pneumonia often do not have any specific signs of a chest infection but develop a fever, appear quite ill, and can become lethargic6. Elderly people may also have few symptoms with pneumonia.

Pneumonia may be suspected when the doctor examines the patient and hears coarse breathing or crackling sounds when listening to a portion of the chest with a stethoscope. There may be wheezing, or the sounds of breathing may be faint in a particular area of the chest. A chest X-ray is usually ordered to confirm the diagnosis of pneumonia. The lungs have several segments referred to as lobes, usually two on the left and three on the right. When the pneumonia affects one of these lobes it is often referred to as lobar pneumonia7. Some pneumonias have a more patchy distribution that does not involve specific lobes. In the past, when both lungs were involved in the infection, the term "double pneumonia" was used. This term is rarely used today.

Notes:

1fungus (pi. fungi)

2currently

3droplet

4inadvertently

5pus

6lethargic ,

7lobar pneumonia





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