III. Post-reading activites. Check how well you understand the text by answering the following questions

Check how well you understand the text by answering the following questions.

1. How many circulatory systems actually has our body?

2. What is the key organ in the circulatory system?

3. How many chambers has the human heart?

4. How do we call the bottom part of the heart which is divided into two chambers and pumps the blood out of the heart?

5. How do we call the upper part of the heart which is made up of the other two chambers of the heart and receives the blood entering the heart?

6. What valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle?

7. The mitral valve separates the left atrium and the left ventricle, doesn't it?

8. Name the body's main arteries.

9. What are the two largest veins of the body?

10. What network connects the arteries and veins?

Continue the following sentences.

1) The circulatory system is composed of....

2) The systemic circulation sends blood from the heart to....

3) The main function of the heart is....

4) The heart lies....

5) Arteries carry blood away from....

6) Veins contain valves that prevent blood from....

7)The capillaries are one of the most important parts of the circulatory system because....

Match the anatomical terms and their definitions.

1. Period of relaxation and expansion of the heart when its chambers fill with blood. 2. Valves located between the atria and ventricles. 3. Minute blood vessel that connects arterioles with venules. 4. Series of events that occur in the heart during one complete heartbeat. 5. Small artery. 6. Thin membrane lining the interior of the heart. 7. Lubricating outer layer of the heart wall and part of the pericardium. 8. Cardiac muscle layer of the heart wall. 9. Tough, fibrous, two-layered membrane sac that surrounds, protects, and anchors the heart. 10. System of blood vessels that transports blood between the heart and lungs. 11. System of blood vessels that transports blood between the heart and all parts of the body other than the lungs. 12. Rhythmic contraction of the heart. 13. Either of two large veins that return blood to the right atrium of the heart. 14. Small vein.

a) cardiac cycle; b) myocardium; c) systemic circulation; d) venule; e) arteriole; J) diastole;

g) pericardium; h) vena cava; i) capillary; j) systole; k) atrioventricular valves; I) endocardium; m) pulmonar circulation; n) epicardium

4. Read and translate the following proverb. What is it about? Do you agree with the saying? Discuss it in groups.

A merry heart does good like a medicine.

IV. Speaking.

Make a dialogue between a cardiologist and a patient. Here is vocabulary for you to speak about heart problems.

QUESTIONS Do you have any pain in the chest, especially after exertion? Are you breathless at any time (on exertion/ at rest/ in bed)? Do your ankles swell up? Do you freeze often and quickly? How far can you walk before the pain in your leg stops you going? Have you recently lost consciousness? INSTRUCTIONS I would like to listen to your heart. Please lie down on your back. Now roll over to your left side. Try to take short rapid breaths. Lean forward with your hands on your knees and hold your breath for a few seconds.

V. Supplement.

Text I

1. Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones:

1) bone marrow a)

2) nutrients b)

3) life span c)

4) cancer cells d)

5) blood stream e)

6)clotting process f)

2. Read and translate the following text. Be ready to discuss the information obtained.

3. Find 7-10 sentences characterizing the structure of the blood. Translate them in written form.


Humans can't live without blood. Without blood, the body's organs couldn't get the oxygen and nutrients they need to survive, we couldn't keep warm or cool off, fight infections, or get rid of our own waste products. Without enough blood, we'd weaken and die.

The average adult has between 5 to 6 liters of blood or blood volume. The blood carries oxygen and essential nutrients to all of the living cells in the body, and also carries waste products to systems that eliminate them. Most of the blood is made up of plasma. A little less than half of this blood volume is composed of red and white blood cells, and other solid elements called platelets. So, the blood contains three types of blood cells:

l) red blood cells (RBCs);

2) white blood cells (WBCs);

3) platelets.

In babies and young children, blood cells are made within the bone marrow (the soft tissue inside our bones) of lots of bones throughout the body. But, as kids get older, blood cells are made mostly in the bone marrow of the vertebrae (the bones of the spine), ribs, pelvis, skull, sternum (the breastbone), and parts of the humerus (the upper arm bone) and femur (the thigh bone).

The cells travel through the circulatory system suspended in a yellowish fluid called plasma. Plasma is 90 % water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood is a mixture of blood cells and plasma.

Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain the iron-rich protein hemoglobin. Blood gets its bright red color when hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues. The body contains more RBCs than any other type of cells, and each has a life span of about 4 months. Each day, the body produces new red blood cells to replace those that die or are lost from the body.

White blood cells (also called leukocytes) are a key part of the body's system for defending itself against infection. They can move in and out of the bloodstream to reach affected tissues. The blood contains far fewer WBCs than red cells, although the body can increase production of WBCs to fight infection. There are several types of WBCs, and their life spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow.

Several different parts of blood are involved in fighting infection. White blood cells called granulocytes and lymphocytes travel along the walls of blood vessels. They fight germs' such as bacteria and viruses and may also attempt to destroy cells that have become infected or have changed into cancer cells.

Certain types of WBCs produce antibodies, special proteins that recognize foreign materials and help the body destroy or neutralize them. The white cell count (the number of cells in a given amount of blood) in someone with an infection often is higher than usual because more WBCs are being produced or are entering the bloodstream to battle the infection. After the body has been challenged by some infections, lymphocytes "remember" how to make the specific antibodies that will quickly attack the same germ if it enters the body again.

Platelets (also called thrombocytes) are tiny oval-shaped cells made in the bone marrow. They help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help to seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells.

Important proteins called clotting factors are critical to the clotting process. Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action of clotting factors is needed to produce a strong, stable clot. Platelets and clotting factors work together to form solid lumps to seal2 leaks, wounds, cuts, and scratches and to prevent bleeding3 inside and on the surfaces of our bodies.

When large blood vessels are severed (or cut) the body may not be able to repair itself through clotting alone. In these cases, dressings4 or stitches are used to help control bleeding.

Blood contains other important substances, such as nutrients from food that has been processed by the digestive system. Blood also carries hormones released by the endocrine glands and carries them to the body parts that need them. Blood also carries carbon dioxide and other waste materials to the lungs, kidneys, and digestive system to be removed from the body.


1 germ ,

2 to seal ,

3 bleeding

4 dressing ' ()

Answer the questions.

1. How many types of blood cells does the blood contain? Name them.

2. Where are blood cells made?

3. How do we also call red blood cells? Describe them.

4. What important protein do RBCs contain?

5. When does blood get its bright color?

6. What is the main function of white blood cells?

7. The blood contains far fewer WBCs than red cells, doesn't it?

8. When does the body increase production of WBCs?

9. What do we need platelets for?

10. What is plasma?

11. What other important substances does blood contain?


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