Complete the sentences according to the information of the text

- There is not yet general agreement on the effectiveness of taking... at the first sign of a cold.

- Flu shots are effective against....

- Anyone should make a habit of... so that the spine doesn't always get pulled in one direction.

- To prevent heart attack eat less....

- Pneumonia is not really a contagious illness except....

- To prevent AIDS you must forgo donations of....

- Avoid or postpone pregnancy if....

4. Comment upon the proverb.

a) Read the proverb: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away ".

b) Translate it. Do you know any Ukrainian equivalents?

c) Do you agree with its meaning?

d)Discuss it in groups.

IV. Speaking

1. Read the quotations below.

Water, air and cleanliness are the chief articles in my pharmacopoeia

(N. Bonaparte)

The aim of medicine is to prevent disease, and prolong life

the need of a physician.

(William J. Maya)

2. Express your ideas about them.

3. Comment upon each quotation.

4. Complete the sentence:

These quotations are very useful because they will help me...

- to understand life

- to nurse ill people

- to prevent illnesses

- to control myself

- to view good health

- to keep fit

- to be in good health

- to keep on a diet

- to give up smoking

- to strengthen the heart

- to do morning exercises

- to rest in time

41. Infectious diseases.


I. Lead-in

1. The suffixes in the following list are used to form nouns that refer to an activity, a process, a state or a condition. Look at the list of nouns formed from them. Fill in the noun, verb, or adjective from which they have been formed in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

Suffix Verb/noun/adjective Noun formed
-age drain drainage
-ance   assistance
-   malignancy
-dom   wisdom
-ence   interference
-hood   childhood
-ion   examination
-ism   alcoholism
-ness   illness
-ship   apprenticeship

2. Learn the following words.

rabies ;

worms ;

protozoans -

multiply -

boil - ,


measles ;

mumps ;

rubella .

3. Guess the meaning of the following words.

Bacteria, viruses, infections, microorganisms, human, pathogens, cells, reproduction, produce, million, result, pneumonia, tuberculosis, microscopes, materials, influenza, to identify, hepatitis, polio, epidemic, pandemic, malaria

4. Match the words with the definitions.

1. boil a. a very dangerous disease that affects dogs and other animals, and that you can catch if you are bitten by an infected animal
2. measles b. legless parasites that may live in the bodies of people or animals and eat their food or their blood
3. to multiply c. a very small living thing that has only one cell
4. rabies d. to breed
5. chickenpox e. a painful infected swelling under someone's skin
6. protozoans f. an infectious illness which causes a slight fever and spots on your skin
7. worms g. an infectious illness in which you have a fever and small red spots on your face and body. People often have this disease when they are children.
8. rubella h. an infectious illness which makes your neck swell and become painful
9. mumps i. an infectious disease that causes red spots on your body, and can damage an unborn child

5. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. If vets can get close enough, they will test the animal for rabies.

2. We will not accept any weakening of our rabies prevention safeguards.

3. Worms can spread much faster than viruses.

4. These worms grow to an average length of about 1 meter and a diameter of 2 centimeters.

5. Another parasitic protozoan is Myxobolus, this one causing fatal internal cysts and highly resistant to treatment.

6. There are about 10000 species of protozoans.

7. Bacteria multiply quickly in warm food.

8. The boy's body is covered in boils.

9. I caught influenza along with the chickenpox.

10. Justin was in the hospital under observation after he contracted chickenpox and a cough.

11. Scarlet fever, mumps, chickenpox, and whooping cough floated in the air.

12. An epidemic of measles, mumps or rubella is now possible.

13. The vaccine is used to immunize children against measles, mumps and rubella.

14. Cytomegalovirus is a less well-known infection which affects considerably greater numbers of babies than rubella.

II. Reading


Infections are the most common type of disease. Many kinds of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms can invade the human body and cause diseases. Disease-causing microorganisms are called pathogens. Pathogens take over some of the body's cells and tissues and use them for their own growth and reproduction. In the process, they damage or destroy the cells and tissues and so produce diseases.

Infectious diseases can be grouped according to the kind of pathogen that causes them. Bacteria and viruses are the most common pathogens. But fungi, protozoans, and worms also can cause infectious invasive diseases.

Bacterial diseases. Bacteria are microscopic, one-celled organisms. They rank among the most widespread of all living things. A single grain of soil may contain more than 100 million bacteria.

Most bacterial diseases result when bacteria multiply rapidly in the living tissue, damaging or killing it. Boils and carbuncles result from the multiplication of bacteria in the skin. Bacterial pneumonia occurs when bacteria invade the lungs and multiply there. Many other serious diseases, including tuberculosis, result from bacterial multiplication.

Viral diseases. Viruses are smaller than bacteria. They are so tiny that scientists can see them only by means of powerful electron microscopes. By itself, a virus seems to be a lifeless particle. But after a virus invades a living cell, it uses materials in the cell to reproduce. As a virus multiplies, it damages or destroys the cell. If a number of cells become infected, a disease results.

Viruses cause many common diseases, including chickenpox, measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles). Viruses are also responsible for influenza and the common cold. In fact, scientists have identified more than 100 different viruses that cause the common cold. Most cases of diarrhea and vomiting result from viral infections. Viruses also cause many serious diseases, including hepatitis, polio, rabies, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The virus that causes AIDS destroys the immune system's ability to function properly. As a result, people infected with the virus become susceptible to certain illnesses that do not normally occur or that normally are not serious. Many people with AIDS die from these illnesses.

Other infectious diseases can be caused by fungi, protozoans, and worms that live in or on the human body. These pathogens obtain food by breaking down body tissues or by absorbing digested food from the intestines. These pathogens produce diseases ranging from minor skin infections to life-threatening internal disorders.

Spread of infectious diseases. Most infectious diseases are communicable - that is, they can spread from person to person. Occasionally, an infectious disease becomes highly contagious and sweeps through a community. This condition is called an epidemic. When an epidemic occurs at several places throughout the world at the same time, it is called a pandemic. Such an outbreak took place during the winter of 19181919, when influenza swept the world, killing about 20 million people. Some infectious diseases are always present in a particular geographic region. Such diseases are said to be endemic in that region. For example, malaria is endemic throughout much of Africa.

III. Language development

1. Fill in the gaps with words and word combinations from the list.

microorganisms, invade, take over, ranging, rank, one-celled, boils, breaking down, contagious, AIDS

1. Many kinds of bacteria, viruses, and other_________ can invade the human body and cause disease.

2. Pathogens___________ some of the body's cells and tissues and use them for their own growth and reproduction.

3. They_________ among the most widespread of all living things.

4. Bacteria are microscopic,___________ organisms.

5. __________ and carbuncles result from the multiplication of bacteria in the skin.

6. These pathogens obtain food by_________ body tissues or by absorbing digested food from the intestines.

7. Occasionally, an infectious disease becomes highly_______ and sweeps through a community.

8. The virus that causes________ destroys the immune system's ability to function properly.

9. Fungi, protozoans, and worms produce diseases ________ from minor skin infections to life-threatening internal disorders.

10. Bacterial pneumonia occurs when bacteria_____ the lungs and multiply there.


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