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Fill in the correct prepositions. Use one of them twice




from, at, throughout, by, for, to, in

1. Many serious diseases, including tuberculosis, result... bacterial multiplication.

2. Most infectious diseases are communicable that is, they can spread from person... person.

3. Some infectious diseases are always present... a particular geographic region.

4. Viruses can be seen only... means of powerful electron microscopes.

5. Many people with AIDS die... illnesses that do not normally occur or that normally are not serious.

6. Viruses are also responsible... influenza and the common cold.

7. When an epidemic occurs... several places throughout the world at the same time, it is called a pandemic.

8. Malaria is endemic... much of Africa.

Replace the underlined words with their synonyms.

contagious, give rise to, attack, gain control of, classified, gain, passes, multiplication, predisposed

1. Many kinds of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms can invade the human body and cause disease.

2. Pathogens take over some of the body's cells and tissues and use them for their own growth and reproduction.

3. Infectious diseases can be grouped according to the kind of pathogen that causes them.

4. As a result, people infected with the virus become susceptible to certain illnesses that do not normally occur or that normally are not serious.

5. These pathogens obtain food by breaking down body tissues or by absorbing digested food from the intestines.

6. Most infectious diseases are communicable.

8. Occasionally, an infectious disease becomes highly contagious and sweeps through a community.

4. Answer the following questions.

1. What are pathogens?

2. How can infectious diseases be grouped?

3. What organisms are called bacteria?

4. What diseases are caused by viruses?

5. What do you know about AIDS?

6. How do fungi, protozoans, and worms obtain food?

7. How do infectious diseases spread?

8. What conditions are called an epidemic, a pandemic, an endemic?

5. Fill in the words from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.

disease-causing, throughout, minor, life-threatening, highly, lifeless, electron

1. microorganisms

2. particle

3. infections

4. disorders

5. contagious

6. the world

7. microscopes

Read the text and put each sentence into the correct place.

Some pathogens can survive for long periods on nonliving objects. Insects spread some of the most fatal infectious diseases. Many common infectious diseases spread as a result of close contact with a sick person.

HOW INFECTIOUS DISEASES SPREAD

Infectious diseases can spread in three chief ways. They spread (1) by people, (2) by animals, and (3) by nonliving sources.

1).............................................................. Such contact frequently takes place through coughing or sneezing, which expels tiny droplets of moisture that may contain pathogens. Diseases that spread largely through coughing and sneezing include colds, influenza, measles, mumps, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and whooping cough.

2) Fleas, mosquitoes, and other insects that feed on blood transmit many serious diseases. Mosquitoes transmit encephalitis, malaria, and yellow fever in this way. In the same manner, fleas spread plague, and lice carry typhus.

3).......................................... These microorganisms can be transmitted by clothing, bedding, silverware, and other objects handled by sick people. Certain bacterial infections sometimes spread to hospital patients through contact with such contaminated objects.

IV. Speaking

1. Complete the dialogue with the words/phrases below and act it out.

kilos, food, in general, phlegm, energy, pains

Doctor: And how long have you had this temperature?

Patient: Oh, I don't know exactly. About two weeks on and off.

D.: And is the temperature there all the time or does it come on at any particular time?

P.: Well, sometimes I'm all right during the day but, I wake up at night and I'm drenched in sweat, drenched, and sometimes my whole body shakes.

D.: And how have you been feeling________?

P.: Well, I don't know, I've been feeling a bit tired and weak. And I just don't seem to have

any.

D.: And have you noticed any pain in your muscles?

P.: Yes, well, actually I have a bit, yes.

D.: And what about your weight? Have you lost any weight?

P.: Yes, I have, about two__________.

D.: I see, and what about your appetite? What's your appetite been like?

P.: Well, I've really been off my________ this last while. I just haven't felt like eating.

D.: And have you had a cough at all?

P.: Oh yes, I have. Nearly all the time. I sometimes bring up a lot of

D.: And have you noticed any blood in it?

P.: No, never.

D.: Have you had any_________ in your chest?

P.: Not really.

2. Give as much information as you can about:

- bacterial diseases;

- viral diseases;

- AIDS;

- infectious diseases caused by fungi, protozoans and worms;

- the spread of infectious diseases.



42. Nutrition. Vitamins.

, .

I. Learn the following words.

nutrition ; nutrient ; deal with - ;
food ;
fuel ;
calcium - ; chromium - ; copper - ; iodine - ; iron - ; magnesium - ; phosphorus - ; carbohydrate - ; glycogen . 1. Match the definitions with the following words.

 

1. A food made from milk a. fruit
2. A creature which lives in water b. bread
3. The white liquid which animals produce . rice
4. A sweet part of a plant d. milk
5. A food made from flour e. cheese
6. The object from which birds start their lives f. meat
7. The parts of an animal's body used as food g. fish
8. Birds like hens and ducks h. eggs
9. Which is white when boiled for food i. poultry

 


NUTRITION

Nutrition is the science that deals with food and how the body uses it. Food supplies the energy for every action we perform. It also provides substance that the body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate its organs and systems.

A proper diet helps to prevent certain illnesses and aids in recovery from other. Eating a balanced diet is the best way to ensure that the body receives all the food substances it needs. The daily diet should include a certain number of servings from each of five food groups:

vegetables;

fruit;

breads, cereals, rice and pasta;

milk, yogurt and cheese;

meat, poultry, fish, dried beans and peas, eggs and nuts.

Food provides certain chemical substances needed for good health. The substances, called nutrients, perform one or more of three functions:

1. They provide materials for building, regaining or maintaining body tissues.

2. They help to regulate body processes.

3. They serve as fuel to provide energy.

There are six main groups of nutrients. Water is the most critical nutrient. One can live without other nutrients for several weeks, but we can go without water for only about one week. The body needs water to carry out all its life processes. Adults should consume about 22.5 litres of water a day. Carbohydrates include all sugars and starches. They serve as the main source of energy. The main sugar in food is sucrose, ordinary white or brown sugar. Fructose comes from most fruits and many vegetables. Lactose is found in milk. Foods containing starches include beans, breads, cereals, corn, pasta (macaroni). Fats are a highly concentrated source of energy and they are composed of an alcohol called glycerol and substances called fatty acids. Proteins provide energy and serve as one of the main building materials of the body. Muscle, skin, cartilage and hair are made up largely of proteins. Every cell contains proteins called enzymes, which speed up chemical reactions. Minerals are needed for the growth and maintenance of body structures. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus are essential parts of the bones and teeth. There are trace elements which include chromium, cooper, fluorine, iodine, iron and zinc. Iron is an important haemoglobin. Vitamins should be supplied daily in the diet.

II. Language Development





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