Read the text and answer the questions. 2. What way is health care provided in most developed and developing countries?

1. What is health care?

2. What way is health care provided in most developed and developing countries?

3. Is general taxation the only financing source for the NHS?

4. What are the main NHS priorities?

5. How is NHS work controlled?

6. What organization is responsible for primary care administration?

Health care is prevention, treatment, and management of illness and preservation of mental health through the services offered by medical, nursing, and allied health professions. Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including "preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations". The organized provision of such services may constitute a health care system. This can include specific Health Service or cooperation across the National Health Service and Social Services as in Shared Care. Before the term "health care" became popular, English-speakers referred to medicine or to the health sector and spoke of the treatment and prevention of illness and disease.

In most developed countries and many developing countries health care is provided to everyone regardless of their ability to pay. The National Health Service, established in 1948 by Clement Atlee's Labour government in the United Kingdom, was the world's first universal health care system provided by government and paid for from general taxation.

The main aims of the NHS are:

To provide a universal service for all based on clinical need, not ability to pay.

To provide a comprehensive range of services.

To respond to the different needs of different populations.

To work continuously to improve the quality of services and to minimize errors.

To use public funds for health care devoted solely to NHS patients.

To help to keep people healthy and work to reduce health inequalities.

To respect the confidentiality of individual patients and provide open access to information about services, treatment and performance.

The NHS in England is controlled by the UK government through the Department of Health, which takes political responsibility for the service. The DH controls ten Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs), which oversee all NHS operations, particularly the Primary Care Trust, in their area. There are several types of NHS trusts:

Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), which administrate primary care and public health. On 1 October 2006 the number of PCTs was reduced from 303 to 152 in an attempt to bring services closer together and cut costs. These oversee 29,000 GPs and 18,000 NHS dentists. In addition, they commission acute services from other NHS Trusts and the private sector, provide primary care in their locations, and oversee such matters as primary and secondary prevention, vaccination administration and control of epidemics. PCTs control 80 per cent of the total NHS budget.

NHS Hospital Trusts. 290 organizations administer hospitals, treatment centers and specialists care in about 1,600 NHS hospitals.

NHS Ambulance Services Trusts.

NHS Care Trusts.

NHS Mental Health Trusts.

NHS Direct Trust provides telephone and online support services.


V. Lead-in

1. Read the words, then match them with their prefixes from the list below:

a) water hydro-;

b) life and living things bio-.

Biology, biomass, hydrocarbon, biorhythms, hydrophobia, biosphere, hydrochloric acid, biotechnology, hydroelectricity, biopsy, hydrogen peroxide, biophysics, hydrotherapy.

2. Learn the following words:

to encompass ;

to undergo - , ;

apprenticeship - () ;

to extend ;

arts - ;

obvious ;

cognate - , ;

advanced ;

to administer - ();

to embrace ;

board ;

to designate ;

to be engaged in - ;

license ;

jurisprudence ;

requirement - ; ;

dispensing - ; ;

merchandising - ;

accounting - .

3. Guess the meaning of the following words.

System, formal, college, instruction, leading, career, manufacturing, medication, effect, adequate, basic, specialized, business, profession, techniques, license, jurisprudence, practice, variation, specific, legal, registered.

4. Match the words with the definitions.

1. apprenticeship a. a group of people in an organization, who make rules and important decisions
2. to extend b. to give someone a medicine or medical treatment
3. arts c. studying a school subject at a difficult level
4. to administer d. the subjects you can study that are not scientific, for example history, languages, etc.
5. to embrace e. to continue for a longer period of time or to make something last longer
6. board f. to choose someone or something for a particular job or purpose
7. to designate g. work for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a particular skill or job
8.advanced learning h. to include something as a part of a subject, discussion, etc.



5. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Some of our courses extend over two years.

2. He's serving apprenticeship as a pharmacist.

3. Physics, chemistry, and maths are closely related subjects.

4. He went to the United States to undergo medical treatment.

5. She studied at the faculty of arts.

6. History, literature and philosophy are arts.

7. Advanced learners of English take part in our university conferences.

8. The doctor administered painkillers to the boy.

9. This course embraces several different aspects of psychology.

VI. Reading


The history of pharmaceutical education has closely followed that of medical education. As the training of the physician underwent changes from the apprenticeship system to formal educational courses, so did the training of the pharmacist. The first pharmaceutical colleges in Great Britain were founded at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

The course of instruction leading to a degree in pharmacy was extended from four to five years in 1960. The first and frequently the second year of training, embracing general education subjects, are often provided by a school of arts and sciences. Many institutions, in addition, offer graduate courses in pharmacy and cognate sciences leading to the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in pharmacy, pharmacology, or related disciplines. These advanced courses are intended especially for those, who are preparing for careers in research, manufacturing, or teaching in the field of pharmacy.

Several schools of pharmacy have now adopted a six-year professional course leading to the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy. This professional training includes many subjects common to the medical curriculum and involves training in hospital wards. In this service a professionally trained pharmacist is expected to give advice to the physician in the techniques of administering medication and possible interaction of drugs in the patient, along with expected side effects.

Since the treatment of the sick with drugs encompasses a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, it is obvious that understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training. The basic five-year curriculum in British colleges of pharmacy embraces physics, chemistry, biology, bacteriology, physiology, pharmacology, and many other specialized courses such as dispensing pharmacy. As the pharmacist is engaged in business as well, special training is provided in merchandising, accounting, computer techniques, and pharmaceutical jurisprudence. All other countries requiring licenses to practice offer the same basic curriculum with minor variations.

Before one is permitted to practice pharmacy in Great Britain as well as in other countries, in which a license is required, an applicant must be qualified by graduation from a recognized college of pharmacy, meet specific requirements for experience, and pass an examination conducted by a board of pharmacy appointed by the government. The passing of this board examination carries with it the legal right to practice pharmacy. The holder is then designated a registered or licensed pharmacist.


VII. Language development


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