Match the words and their translations

a) resistance 1.
b) inoculation 2. ,
c) posture 3.
d) sedentary 4.
e) support 5. '
f) overexertion 6. ,
g) susceptible 7. ,
h) constellation 8.
4. Makeword combinations.    
a) massive 1. amount
b) proper 2. pressure
c) emotional 3. illness
d) hard 4. doses
e) contagious 5. mattress
f) blood 6. tensions

5. Look at these words. Give their synonyms. Can you guess what they mean? Check your ideas in a dictionary.

1. to insert 5. common sense

2. excess 6. to predict

3. contagious 7. amount

4. to forgo 8. proper

a. quantity; b. fitting, suitable; c. practical good sense; d. to reduce, to make less; e. to put, to fit; f. to give up; g. infectious; h. more than is usual  

Derive new words from those you have studied.

Abstract noun Noun (person) Verb Adjective

II. Reading.

Read and translate the text. Get ready to comment the prevention of the diseases described in the text.


This specialist is concerned with predicting and preventing disease, usually in one specific institution or sector such as an industry or a community.

The Common Cold and Upper Respiratory Infections

Although taking massive doses of vitamin at the first sign of a cold is said by some authorities to prevent the infection from developing, there is not yet general agreement on the effectiveness of this treatment.

Actually, there are several common-sense ways of reducing the risk of infection, particularly for those people who are especially susceptible to catching a cold. For most people, getting a proper amount of sleep, eating, to stay out of crowds, and trying to keep emotional tensions under control can increase resistance to colds and other minor respiratory infections. Inoculation against particular types of viruses is recommended by many physicians in special cases: for pregnant women, for the elderly, and for those people who have certain chronic heart

and lung diseases. Flu shots are effective against a particular virus or viruses for a limited period.


In general, maintaining good posture during the waking hours and sleeping on a hard mattress at night if necessary, inserting a bed board between the mattress and bedsprings are the first line of defence against backaches. Anyone habitually carrying heavy loads of books or groceries, or even an over loaded attache case, should make a habit of shifting the weight from arm to arm so that the spine doesn't always get pulled in one direction. Workers who are sedentary for most of the day at a desk or factory table should be sure that the chair they sit in provides firm support for back muscles and is the right height for the working surface.

Heart attack

- Eat less saturated fat and cholesterol.

- Control high blood pressure.

- Don't smoke.

- Count calories. Get down to your proper weight and stay there. Excess weight taxes the heart, makes it work harder.

- Exercise regularly.


There is no guaranteed way to prevent pneumonia. The advice to avoid chilling temperatures, overexertion, and fatigue when one has a cold is directed principally toward avoiding pneumonia. Anybody exposed to the elements, especially when fatigued and wearing damp clothing, is particularly susceptible to pneumonia. Pneumonia is not really a contagious illness except in very special circumstances, so that isolation of patients is not necessary. In fact, all of us carry the pneumococcal in our noses and throats, but we rarely have the constellation of circumstances that lead to infection. It is the added physical insults that allow pneumonia to take hold.


- Forgo donations of blood or plasma, sperm, body organs, or other tissues.

- Limit sexual contacts and be frank with sexual partners about steps taken to prevent the spread of the virus.

- Avoid practices in which exchange of body fluids including semen, takes place.

- Refrain from sharing tooth brushes, razors, or other implements that could become contaminated with blood.

- If a drug user, limit drug use, do not let others use needles you have used, and do not leave needles or others items where others might use them.

- If a woman who has had a positive antibody test or who is the sexual partner of a men with a positive antibody test, avoid or postpone pregnancy. The disease can be transmitted from mother to unborn child in the mother's uterus.

III. Post-reading activities


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