Prescription and method of use


. Lead-in

1. Study the following combining forms and their meanings. Do you know any other words formed with their use?

Combining form Definition Tern
pharmac- drug pharmacology
chem- drug chemotherapy
tox- poison toxic toxicology
lingu- tongue sublingual
derm- skin hypodermic
enter- intestine parenteral
ven- vein intravenous
thec- sheath (covering of the spinal cord, brain) intrathecal
aero- air aerosols
cras- disease dyscrasia
anti- against antiseptic
intra- within intramuscular
contra- against contraindication

2. Learn the following words.

duration ;

completeness ;

allied - , ;

acceptable ;

advantage ;

convenience ;

saliva ;

angina pectoris - , ;

suppository - , ;

syringe ;

leakage - , ;

vapor ;

lesion , .

3. Match the expression with its medical term.

1. the study of poisons a. intravenous
2. treatment with chemicals b. toxicology
3. pertaining to within a vein c. rectum
4. study of drugs d. pharmacology
5. pertaining to under the tongue e. antibacterial
6. pertaining to under the skin f. chemotherapy
7. against infection g. sublingual
8. pertaining to within a sheath h. topical
9. external i. intradermal
10. the distal end of the digestive tract j. intrathecal

Explain the following words and word combinations.

Parenteral; pharmacology; contraindications; antidote; drug toxicity; antiseptic; antibiotic; aerosol; side effect; intravenous; sublingual.

Translate into Ukrainian

1. Angina pectoris is a disease marked by brief paroxysmal attacks of chest pain precipitated by deficient oxygenation of the heart muscles.

2. The needlestick injury is an accidental puncture of the skin with an unsterilized instrument (as a syringe).

3. The enemies used a poisonous gas giving off poisonous vapors designed to kill, injure, or disable by inhalation.

4. This custom is widely acceptable in the country.

5. When the patient tried to swallow the drug, the sudden overflow of saliva prevented him from doing it.

6. The skin was red and many lesions on it didn't heal.

7. During the childbirth intrethecal anesthesia is widely used.

8. The patient suffered numerous intestinal ulcerative lesions.

II. Reading


The route of administration of a drug (how it is introduced into the body) is very important in determining the rate and completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and speed and duration of the drug's action in the body.

The different methods used by physicians and allied health personnel to administer drugs are listed below, with a brief discussion of each method:

Oral administration. The route of administration is by mouth. Drugs given orally must pass into the stomach and be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall. Although this method is probably most acceptable to patients from the standpoint of convenience, it may have several disadvantages. If the drug is destroyed in the digestive tract by digestive juices or if the drug cannot pass through the intestinal mucosa, it will be ineffective. Also, oral administration is slower than other methods and disadvantageous if time is a factor in therapy.

Sublingual administration. In this route of administration, drugs are not swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. Absorption may be rapid for some agents. Nitroglycerin tablets are taken this way to treat attacks of chest pain (angina pectoris). The nitroglycerin is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and opens the coronary arteries to increase blood flow to the heart muscle.

Rectal administration. Suppositories (cone-shaped objects containing drugs) and water solutions are inserted into the rectum. At times, drugs are given by rectum when oral administration presents difficulties, such as when the patient is nauseated and vomiting.

Parenteral administration. This type of administration is accomplished by injection through a syringe under the skin, into a muscle, into a vein, or into a body cavity. There are several types of parenteral injections:

Subcutaneous injection. This injection is sometimes called a hypodermic injection, and is given just under the several layers of the skin. The outer surface of the arm and the anterior surface of the skin are usual locations for subcutaneous injections.

Intradermal injection. This shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin. It is used chiefly in skin testing for allergic reactions. Short needles are used, and an elevation appears on the skin when an intradermal injection is given properly.

Intramuscular injection (I.M.). This injection is given into the muscle, usually into the buttocks. When drugs are irritating the skin or when a large volume of a long-acting drug is to be given, I.M. injections are advisable.

Intravenous injection (I.V.). This injection is given directly into the veins. It is given when an immediate effect from the drug is desired or when the drug cannot be given into other tissues. Good technical skill is needed in administering this injection, since leakage of drugs into surrounding tissues may result in damage to the tissues.

Intrathecal injection. This injection is made into the sheath of membranes (meninges) which surround the spinal cord and brain. The effects of the drug administered so are usually limited to the central nervous system, and intrathecal injections are often used to produce anesthesia.

Intracavitary injection. This injection is made into a body cavity, as, for example, into the peritoneal or pleural cavity.

Inhalation. In this method of administration, vapors, or gases, are taken into the nose or mouth and are absorbed into the bloodstream through the thin walls of the air sacs in the lungs. Aerosols (particles of the drug suspended in air) are administered by inhalation.

Topical application. This is the local external application of drugs on skin or mucous membranes of the mouth or other surface. It is commonly used to accelerate the healing of abrasions, for antiseptic treatment of a wound, and as an antipruritic (against itching). Topical application may also include administration of drugs into the eyes, ears, nose, and vagina. Lotions are used most often when the skin is moist, or "weeping," and ointments and creams are used when the lesions are dry.

III. Language development

1. Choose the English equivalents of these words and word combinations.

1. :

a) drug taking b) drug infusion c) drug administration
2. ' :
a) bloodclot b) blood occlusion c) blood stream
3. :
a) hypertension b) angina pectoris c) enema
4. :
a) infusion b) solution c) suspension
5. :
a) nausea b) vomiting c) itching
6. :
a) to irritate b) to inject c) to irrigate
7. :
a) cerebrum b) medulla c) spinal cord
8. :
a) application b) inhalation c) anesthesia
9. :
a) lotion b) ointment c) cream
10. :
a) suppository b) tampon c) syringe


2. Match the synonyms.

1. to introduce a. drawback
2. disadvantage b. to show
3. to increase c. to speed up
4. flow d. confined
5. limited e. to contain
6. to accelerate f. stream
7. to include g. to enlarge


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