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Chemical name generic name brand name




alpha-amino- ampicilline Amcill capsules

benzyl P Omnipen

Penbritin

Polycillin

Principen/N

Standards. While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the legal responsibility for deciding whether a drug may be distributed and sold, there are definite standards for drugs set by an independent committee of physicians, pharmacologists, pharmacists, and manufactures.This committee is called the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Two important standards of the USP are that the drug must be clinically useful (useful for patients) and available in pure form (made by good manufacturing methods). If a drug has USP after his name, it has met with standards of the Pharmacopeia. A list of drugs is published by the USP every 5 years but not all drugs are listed in it. The National Formulary (NF) is a larger list of drugs which meet purity standards. The letters USP and NF after a drug indicate that the manufacturer claims his product conforms to USP or NF standards. It is up to the FDA to inspect and enforce the claims of drug manufactures.

Drugs may be classified according to a) their morphology; b) the taxonomy of the plants and animals from which they are obtained; c) their therapeutic applications; d) their chemical constituents. Each of these methods of classification has advantages and disadvantages.

3.

l. What are drugs? 2. What are drugs obtained from? 3. What are the examples of drugs obtained from animals? 4. Give the examples of laboratory-synthesized drugs. 5. What is the chemical name of a drug? 6. What is meant by the generic or official name of a drug? 7. What can you say about the brand or trade name of a drug? 8. How many different names can a drug have? 9. What organization has the legal responsibility for drugs? 10. What is the United States Pharmacopeia? 11. What are the two important standards of the USP? 12. When do we say that a drug has met with Pharmacopeia standards? 13. Can you describe the National Formulary? 14. What do the letters USP and NF after a drug indicate?

 

4. A:

1. Drugs are chemical substances used.... 2. Drugs are obtained from various parts of plants, such as.... 3.Drugs can be made from chemical substances.... 4. Drugs contained in food substances are.... 5. The generic name is.... 6. Most drugs have several... because.... 7. It is common practice to.... 8. FDA has legal responsibility for.... 9. Brand names have.... 10. When a specific brand name is orderedon a prescription . 11. A list of drugs is published.... 12. Two important standards of the USP are.... 13. It is up to the FDA to....

5. :

a) the generic (official) name; b) the brand (trade) name; c) the chemical name; d) the Food and Drug Administration; e) the United States Pharmacopeia; f) the National Formulary.

IV. . : ) ; ) ; ) .

TEXT

CLASSIFICATION AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUGS

The drugs can be grouped according to the action they possess. The main groups are:

Antiseptic and disinfectants They kill bacterias by poisoning them directly either inside or outside the body;

Expectorants These are used for assisting in coughing up of mucus and sputum from lungs and bronchi;

Cough mixtures These are used to suppress coughing by reducing the irritation of throat;

Laxative and purgative They make the bowels move. Laxative is milder than a purgative which is given when the bowels have not moved for several days;

Analgesics They are drugs that soothe or relieve pain;

Tonics These are drugs which are taken to strengthen the body and to supplement deficiencies in the nutritional value of foods;

Application for skin and mucous membrane includes ointments, lotions and liniments. These are often poisonous and should not be taken orally or i. v., except by rubbing on or applying to the skin or mucous membrane.

The major characteristics of drugs are:

1. Therapeutic effect This is the ability to act selectively on an organ, on body tissues or on disease causing organism and to restore normal body function.

2. Side effectsIn addition to its therapeutic effect drug may cause nausea, vomiting, etc.

3. Allergic reaction If a person has an allergy he may show unexpected reaction when he is given the drug.

One should take into consideration the action of drugs on the body. Too little of the drug cause it to be ineffective while an overdose may be fatal. Children and aged persons are more sensitive to drugs and therefore require a smaller dose than others. In administrating drugs for small children many other factors have to be taken into consideration. Children are impressionable and their sense of fear and pain is so acute that it may obliterate the curative properties of a drug. So drugs for children should preferably be in liquid form, and taste good. For them special syrops and fruit and berry juices are used. The drugs that cannot be taken in liquid form are made to resemble sweets.

Other problems are involved in developing drugs for the aged, whose endocrine and other systems, kidneys and liver become less efficient. It takes longer for an aging organism to absorb and eliminate medicinal preparations. This is why it is important to combine these drugs with aminoacids, vitamins, and microelements, in all of which an eldery person is deficient.

Drugs are most commonly administered in four ways: orally (through the mouth), recta 1 ly (into the rectum), parenterally (by injection), and by inhalation through lungs. Occasionally, drugs such as nasal decongestants and antiasthma drugs are administered through the membranes of the mouth or nose (e. g. nitroglycerine, under the tongue).

2.

1. How can the drugs be grouped? 2. What is the action of antiseptics and disinfectants? 3. What is the difference between laxatives and purgatives? 4. What are the applications? 5. Can you describe the major characteristics of drugs? 6. What are the requirements for drugs for children and aged persons? 7. In what ways are drugs most commonly administered?

V. , :

1. Analgetics are drugs that soothe or relieve pain. 2. One should never take into consideration the action of drugs on the body. 3. Drugs for children should preferably be in solid form

4. Two important standards of the USP are that the drug must be clinically useful and available in pure form. 5. Most drugs have only one brand name. 6. The chemical name is the chemical formular for the drug.

VI. , :

1. Drugs are chemical substances that can come from many different sources. 2. A drug can have three different names. 3. Children and aged persons are more sensitive to drugs. 4. Drugs are most commonly administered in four ways.

VII. . ' . .

VIII. ', Ⳮ. .

Before giving any drug you should know:

What the drug is used for;

What it can do;

The prescribed dose for a child or adult;

How it should be given;

The possible side effects and precautions to be taken;

What the user of the drug needs to know about it.

IX. , :

. .before meals

. .after meals

. .British Pharmacopeia

USPUS Pharmacopeia

tabs.tablets

tabl.tablet

Nonumero (number)

rept.repeat

Rxthou take

t. d. s. (t. i. d.) three times a day

sig.signature

X. , . XI; , .

1. Rx Ferrous Tabs, . P., No 50

Sig. Tabs i. t. d. s. p. c.

2. Rx Stilbestrol Tabs (0.5 mg), USP

Sig. Tabs i. t. i. d. for 20 days and rept.

after a 10-day interval.

XI. , ' :

GOLDEN RULES FOR PRESCRIBING MEDICINE

Prescription should be short, simple and to the point. It is important to mention the hour of the day when medicines are to be given.

1.Gastric sedatives as bismuth salts are best given on an empty stomach, for their local action.

2. Cod liver oil preparations are to be given after meals.

3. Mineral acids are given after meals.

4. Alkalis when used to neutralise acid, secretion should be given after food and when given as a systemic alkaliser should be given between meals.

5. Takadiastase and pepsin should be given on an empty stomach for local use.

6. All stomachis and bitter tonics are to be given quarter to half an hour before food.

7. Morphine should not be given to head injury cases.

8. Hypnotics should be taken after meals, half an hour before going to bed.

9. Antacids are to be given after meals and anticholinergic during or before meals.

XII. ϳ ˳ .

XIII. , :

1) bad medicine (.) ( );

2) a dose ( taste) of one's own medicine ; : to get or to give a dose of one's own medicine ;

3) to take one's medicine ().






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