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Pilot is on board the ship




Watch officer: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain (to helmsman): Helsman: Please meet the Captain, Mr. Stone. How do you do, sir? How do you do. Pleased to meet you, sir. Гd like to get some information about your ship. You are welcome. How many propellers does your ship have? She is а single-screw ship. What is her maximum speed? 20 knots. How many knots are we doing now? We are running about 17 knots. What is а draft of уоur ship? Her draft is 4, 5 metres fore and 6 metres aft. How is her head now? Her head is 156° (degrees) now. How does she answer the helm? She answers the helm all right. Does the ship sheer too much? No, she sheers а little when there is а heavy swell or а strong wind. Thank you. Now we shall turn to starboard. Starboard а bit. Starboard а bit. Yes, sir. Starboard а bit.

Dialogue 3

Proceeding to the port

Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot: Captain: Pilot, how far will you pilot the ship? I shall con the ship only to the port entrance. Who will con the ship further on? At the entrance to the port another pilot will board the ship. Не will relieve me and manoeuvre her into the port. Не will take the ship to her berth. Thank you. Shall we take а tug to enter the port? Yes, taking а tug is compulsory for such big ships as yours. To my mind, you will take even two tugs. Thank you.

 

 

Unit II ANCHORING (ПОСТАНОВКА НА ЯКОРЬ)

 

VOCABULARY

 

anchor to anchor anchoring anchorage = anchor position anchor chain in the roadstead harbor to reduce speed to be ready to let go length to depend on size – ground depth weather tide conditions to take bearings to take soundings to enter log book to mark chart to pay out (away) – to slack away to heave in Якорь стать на якорь постановка на якорь якорная стоянка якорная цепь на рейде гавань убавить, замедлить (скорость) быть готовым отдать (конец, якорь) длина зависеть от размер грунт глубина погода прилив-отлив условия, состояние брать пеленги делать промеры глубин вносить (информацию) судовой журнал отмечать карта (навигационная) травить, вытравливать выбирать (конец, якорь)

 

Exercises:

 

1. Read the text and translate it into Russian:

TOPIC: ANCHORING

Ships may anchor in the roadstead or inside the harbor. Near the anchor position the ship reduces her speed and stops the engine. The anchors must be ready to let go.

The captain sees to the anchoring of the ship. He gives the command to let go the port or starboard anchor. The third mate assists him at the forecastle. The length of the anchor chain depends on the size of the ship, the character of the holding ground, the depth of water, weather and tide conditions.

After anchoring the watch officer takes anchorage bearings and soundings and enters this information into the log book. Then he marks the ship’s position on the chart.

2. Read the commands and learn them by heart:

Get the anchor ready! Приготовить якорь к отдаче!
Get the port (starboard) anchor ready! Приготовить левый (правый) якорь к отдаче!
Stand by the port (starboard) anchor! Стоять у левого (правого) якоря!
Let go the port (starboard) anchor! Отдать левый (правый) якорь!
Slack away the chain! Травить канат (якорную цепь)!
How many shackles under water? Сколько смычек в воде?
Hold on the chain! Задержать канат!
Stop slackening the chain! Стоп травить канат!
Make fast the chain! Закрепить канат!
Be ready to heave in! Приготовиться выбирать!
Heave in the port (starboard) anchor chain! Выбрать левую (правую) якорную цепь!
Heave short the cable! Подобрать якорную цепь!
How is anchor? Как якорь?
Clear anchor! Якорь чист!
Foul anchor! Якорь не чист!
Put the windlass to gear! Соединить брашпиль!
Disengage the windlass! Разобщить брашпиль!
Stand by fore and aft! All hands on deck! Все наверх! (аврал)
Secure the anchor for sea! Якорь по-походному!

3. Choose the right translation:

1. to slack away the chain 2. to bring the ship to anchor 3. to take a bearing on 4. to take soundings 5. to heave in the chain 6. to be at anchor 7. to be ready 8. to let go both anchors 9. good holding ground 10. to mark position on the chart 11. bad holding ground   1. делать промеры глубин 2. хорошо держащий грунт 3. ставить судно на якорь 4. плохо держащий грунт 5. потравить якорь-цепь 6. отдать оба якоря 7. отмечать местоположение на карте 8. быть готовым 9. выбирать якорь-цепь 10. брать пеленг на что-либо 11. стоять на якоре

 

Make pairs of synonyms

 

  1. ship
  2. to reduce
  3. to approach
  4. to assist
  5. to enter
  6. master
  7. third mate
  8. anchor chain
  9. to slack away
  10. anchorage
 
1. to near 2. to write down 3. cable 4. anchor position 5. third officer 6. to slacken 7. captain 8. to help 9. to pay away 10. vessel

3. Make pairs of antonyms:

 

1. inside 2. port side 3. good 4. near the shore 5. to heave in 6. foul (anchor) 7. inner 1. starboard side 2. bad 3. outer 4. to slack away 5. outside 6. in the offing 7. clear

 

4. Read the dialogues and reproduce them with the partner:

***

CAPTAIN: When are we arriving at our anchorage, pilot?
PILOT: If we proceed at a speed of 14 knots, we’ll get there less than in half an hour.
CAPTAIN: O.K. Well, what are the depths at the anchorage?
PILOT: About 18 fathoms. It’s quite sufficient for your vessel.
CAPTAIN: I suppose the anchorage is well sheltered from winds, isn’t it?
PILOT: You are right. It is sheltered by high land from northerly winds.
CAPTAIN: I wonder what’s the character of bottom there.
PILOT: Don’t worry, Captain. The bottom is rather even with good holding ground – clay and shells.
***
PILOT: So 20 minutes have passed. We are approaching the anchorage position.
CAPTAIN: Shall we switch on the echosounder and start taking soundings?
PILOT: Of course, it’s time to take soundings. Do you see that church over there, Captain?
CAPTAIN: Yes, I do. Must we steer for that church?
PILOT: Yes, you must keep that church in line with the lighthouse until you reach Point B.
CAPTAIN: Shall we drop the anchor at B.?
PILOT: No, “B” is not our anchorage. We’ll alter course at “B” 30° to port and proceed till we reach the green buoy. Our anchorage is 100 meters off the green buoy on our starboard side.
   
***
PILOT: At last we’ve arrived at our anchor position.
CAPTAIN: Which anchor will we drop first?
PILOT: Starboard anchor.
CAPTAIN: PILOT: CAPTAIN: SAILOR: PILOT: SAILOR: PILOT: SAILOR: PILOT: SAILOR: PILOT: SAILOR: PILOT: SAILOR: CAPTAIN: PILOT: How many shackles must we slack away? I think five will do. O.K. Stand by fore and aft! The starboard anchor is ready! Let go the starboard anchor! The starboard anchor gone! Slack away the cable! Slacking away the cable! Hold on the cable! Holding on the cable! Disengage the windlass! Disengaged the windlass. Switch on the anchor lights! The lights are switched on. Thank you, pilot. What about some coffee? O.K. I don’t mind.

 

 

Unit III WEATHER (ПОГОДА)

VOCABULARY

Types of weather reports: weather message=weather report weather bulletin weather information weather summary synopsis weather forecast further outlook warning [NIL] gale warning severe gale warning   storm warning hurricane warning typhoon warning   Periods: next 24 hours forecast valid forecast continued / updated today / tonight today / tomorrow / next few days imminent soon   later occasionally=temporarily   Regions: district=area=zone throughout – elsewhere = otherwise within / in patches locally = at places semicircle / hemisphere quadrant Виды погодных сообщений: сообщение о погоде бюллетень погоды информация о погоде сводка погоды синоптический обзор прогноз погоды перспектива (вероятная эволюция) предупреждение (НЕТ) предупреждение о сильном ветре (9 баллов) предупреждение об очень сильном ветре (свыше 9 баллов) штормовое предупреждение предупреждение об урагане предупреждение о тайфуне Сроки, периоды времени: следующие 24 часа прогноз действителен прогноз сохраняется /обновляется сегодня днем / сегодня вечером сегодня / завтра /ближайшие дни в ближайшее время (в ближайшие 6 часов) скоро (через 6, но не позднее, чем через 12 час.) позднее (через 12 часов) временами № района, координаты, название района: район повсюду, везде в другом месте, в других направлениях в пределах/отдельными участками местами половина, полукруг/ полушарие/ квадрант
  WIND: Direction Wind force Increasing Decreasing becoming continuous variable veering backing shift of wind gusty = in gusts generally/mostly calm light air light breeze gentle breeze moderate breeze fresh breeze strong breeze moderate gale fresh gale strong gale storm hurricane   SEAS = DISTURBANCE: seas swell / ripple wave seas calm = no swell calm (rippled) seas smooth (waveless) seas slight seas moderate seas rough = heavy seas very rough seas high very high phenomenal   state of sea   PRESSURE: low = cyclone (L) high anti-cyclone (H) trough [trof] (T) ridge (R) cold front (C)/warm front (W) occluded front (O) slowly steadily rather quickly rapidly very rapidly moving / lying passing /covering deepening / filling developing / developed stationary   CLOUDINESS / PRECIPITATION:fair = clear foul thick = gloomy cloudy / cloudless moderate – cloudiness – (brief) rain shower / thunderstorm drizzle / sleet hail/snow /snow showers blizzard   VISIBILITY: poor moderate good very good exceptional fog /mist /haze thin fog moderate fog thick fog dense fog   ICE: Barrier ice Bay ice Drift ice Fast ice pack ice   ВЕТЕР: направление сила ветра усиливающийся, увеличивающийся ослабевающий, уменьшающийся переходящий продолжительный переменный поворачивающий по часовой стрелке поворачивающий против часовой стрелки поворот ветра порывистый преимущественно, главным образом штиль тихий ветер (1 м/с), 1 балл легкий ветер (3 м/с), 2 балла слабый ветер (5 м/с), 3 балла умеренный ветер (7 м/с), 4 балла свежий ветер (9 м/с), 5 баллов сильный ветер (12 м/с), 6 баллов крепкий ветер (15 м/с), 7 баллов очень крепкий ветер (19 м/с), 8 баллов шторм (23 м/с), 9 баллов жестокий шторм (30 м/с), 11 баллов ураган (более 33 м/с), 12 баллов   ВОЛНЕНИЕ МОРЯ: высота волны зыбь/ рябь волна волнение отсутствует слабое волнение, рябь, 1 балл слабое волнение (2 балла), 0,2-0,3 м легкое волнение (3 балла), 0,25-1,25 м умеренное волнение (4 балла), 1,25-2,5 м сильное волнение (5 баллов), 2,5-4,0 м сильное волнение (6 баллов), 4-6 м очень сильное волнение (7 баллов), 6-9 м очень сильное волнение (8 баллов), 9-12 м исключительное волнение (9 баллов), более 12м состояние моря   ДАВЛЕНИЕ: циклон, область низкого давления антициклон, область высокого давления барическая ложбина барический гребень холодный фронт/теплый фронт фронт окклюзий медленно (менее 15 узлов) умерено (от15 до 25 узлов) очень быстро (от25 до 35 узлов) стремительно (от 35 до 45 узлов) очень стремительно (свыше 45 узлов) смещающийся/ лежащий проходящий/ покрывающий углубляющийся/ заполняющийся развивающийся/ развившийся устойчивый, малоподвижный   ОБЛАЧНОСТЬ / ОСАДКИ: ясный ненастный пасмурный облачный/ безоблачный умеренный облачность (кратковременный) дождь ливень / гроза морось/ мокрый снег град /снег/ снегопад буран, метель   ВИДИМОСТЬ: плохая (0,3 – 1,0 мили) средняя (1 – 5 миль) хорошая (5 - 11) очень хорошая (11 - 27) исключительная (более 27) туман/ дымка /мгла слабый туман (0,3 – 1 миля) умеренный туман (200 – 500 м) сильный туман (50 -200 м) очень сильный туман (0 – 50 м)   ЛЕД: ледяные заторы припай редкий лед неподвижный лед паковый лед

 

Exercises:

1. Read and translate the text:

TOPIC: WEATHER

 

Weather conditions should be checked prior to departure and daily throughout a voyage. Weather reports and warnings are given on Inmarsat-C, SSB radio, or weather fax. Weather fax reports show weather analysis and prognosis or forecast charts for different areas in synoptic times (0000 hours, 0600 hours, 1200 hours and 1800 hours UTC). An analysis chart shows the weather patterns as they are at that point in time, while a prognosis chart shows what is expected to happen in a specified time period. An analysis chart shows weather fronts, troughs, ridges, and wind speed and direction. A front is a place where two different air masses are coming together. A front can develop into a trough or a ridge. A trough is an extended depression where the atmospheric pressure is relatively low along a line. A ridge is just the opposite – a line of high pressure. Troughs usually indicate foul weather while ridges indicate fair weather.

Both analysis and prognosis charts show high and low pressure areas on a large scale – several hundred nautical miles (fig. 1). Pressure systems are depicted by isobars. An isobar is a line connecting places with the same barometric (atmospheric) pressure. Average atmospheric pressure is about 1013 millibars. If the pressure drops below 1000 millibars, foul weather should be expected.

The barometer should be checked daily and the barometric pressure should be noted in the logbook. Preparations should be made for foul weather if the barometer drops steadily or if a cyclone warning is issued. The deck and all hatches should be secured and a plan should be made to run from the cyclone or to seek a safe anchorage.

 

Fig. 1. Аnalysis and prognosis charts

 

The barometer should be checked daily and the barometric pressure should be noted in the logbook. Preparations should be made for foul weather if the barometer drops steadily or if a cyclone warning is issued. The deck and all hatches should be secured and a plan should be made to run from the cyclone or to seek a safe anchorage.

Meteorological elements

The state of the atmosphere is determined by various meteorological elements, such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness and fog, forms of precipitation, barometric pressure, and speed and direction of wind. All these elements may be referred to as “the weather”.

Temperature

When measuring temperatures three different scales can be used: Kelvin-scale, Celsius-scale and Fahrenheit-scale.

Humidity (Влажность)

Humidity refers to the amount of water vapour in the air. Warm air is capable to contain a higher grade of humidity, than cold air. Most clouds are the result of a rising mass of cool air. When the temperature of air falls, water vapour in the air will condense into droplets or ice crystals, thus forming clouds or fog.

Cloudiness

Clouds very often indicate an imminent change of weather. Rising clouds is an indication that the weather is about to clear; lowering ot thickening clouds will indicate precipitation.

Fog

Fog is a cloud that touches the ground. Dense fog reduces visibility.

Precipitation

Precipitation is formed when the droplets or ice crystals in clouds have become sufficiently large to fall to the ground. Precipitation may take a variety of forms, for example rain, snow, drizzle, hail, sleet.

Wind

Wind is the most important factor that determines the condition of weather. Wind is merely an amount of air that moves in a horizontal motion over the earth from area of high barometric pressure towards an area of low barometric pressure. Falling barometric pressure generally indicates that a gale or storm is approaching; rising pressure indicates the approach or continuation of fair weather.

Wind is always named after the direction it is coming from, for example NW, SE. Its force is indicated by the Beaufort-scale numbers These numbers, ranging from 0 to force 12,refer to the wind-speed measured in nautical miles per hour.

For the navigator the wind force and wind direction are the most important aspects of meteorological conditions that are forecast in weather reports by weather stations. Information must always include an increase or decrease in force and any change in wind direction. A change of direction is usually indicated by the terms “veering” (in a clockwise direction) and “backing” (in anti-clockwise direction).

Pressure

An area of low pressure is called a cyclone. A high-pressure area is an anti-cyclone.

 

2. Answer the questions to the text:

1. How are weather reports and warnings given?

2. What does an analysis chart show?

3. What is a trough?

4. What is a ridge?

5. If the pressure drops below 1000 millibars what weather should be expected?

6. What should a captain do if barometer drops steadily or a cyclone warning is issued?

7. Why is the weather so important for mariners?

8. How can you predict weather judging on the clouds?

9. What is the name for a cloud that touches the ground?

10. What kinds of precipitation do you know?

11. What is the influence (влияние) of barometric pressure upon the weather conditions?

12. How are the winds named?

13. How is the force of the wind measured?

 

3. Make pairs of antonyms:

1. cloudy 2. thick 3. foul (weather) 4. rainy 5. rough 6. to increase 7. to cancel 8. high 9. cold 10. stationary   1. to decrease 2. sunny 3. moving 4. calm 5. clear 6. thin 7. cloudless 8. warm 9. low 10. to continue

4. Match the columns:

 

1. veering 2. backing 3. variable 4. occasionally 5. increasing 6. decreasing 7. locally 8. imminent 9. soon 10. mostly 1. in some places 2. changing direction 3. shifting in a clockwise direction 4. from time to time (at times) 5. shifting in a anti-clockwise direction 6. becoming weaker / worse 7. becoming stronger / better 8. during the nearest 6 hours 9. period of time from 6 to 12 hours 10. mainly  

5. Choose the key word for the chain:

 

A) cyclone

B) weather

C) precipitation

D) visibility

E) wind

F) forecast

 

  1. rain, hail, snow, shower, thunderstorm
  2. gale, breeze, storm, hurricane
  3. gloomy, cloudy, clear, rainy, stormy
  4. deepening, filling, developing, passing, spreading
  5. mist, fog, haze, fog banks, fog patches
  6. valid, updated, long-range, short-range

 

6. Put the words in the right order:

 

A. Speed of movement starting from the minimum one:

  1. steadily
  2. very rapidly
  3. slowly
  4. rather quickly
  5. rapidly

B. Wind force starting from the weakest one:

  1. fresh
  2. gentle
  3. light
  4. strong
  5. moderate

C. Height of the wave starting from the minimum one:

  1. smooth
  2. rough
  3. calm
  4. high
  5. slight

D. Visibility starting from the best one:

  1. good
  2. poor
  3. very poor
  4. moderate
  5. exceptional
  6. excellent

7. Choose the right translation:

 

1. report 2. forecast 3. outlook 4. summary 5. bulletin 6. warning 7. synopsis   1. сводка 2. краткий обзор 3. сообщение 4. прогноз 5. предупреждение 6. перспектива бюллетень

8. Read and translate weather reports:

ZCZC IE50 120430 UTC JUN WEATHER FORECAST FOR BALTIC SEA AREA NO WARNINGS WEATHER SUMMARY: RIDGE OF HIGH PASSES SCANDINAVIA. LOW APPROACHING IN THE NORTH SEA FROM SOUTHWEST.   FORECAST VALID 24 HOURS (WIND SCALE IN METRES PER SECOND) SCAGERRAK SW 6-11. THIS AFTERNOON S. AT FIRST GOOD VIS. FROM EVENING RAIN WITH MOD VIS.   KATTEGAT, THE SOUND AND THE BELTS W 2-6. TOWARDS NOON SW-S AND DURING AFTERNOON SOMEWHAT INCREASING. AT FIRST GOOD VIS. FROM THIS NIGHT RAIN WITH MOD VIS.   SOUTHERN BALTIC AROUND W OR VRB 1-6. FROM THE EVENING S, BEGINNING IN WESTERN WATERS. MAINLY GOOD VIS. DURING MORNING HOURS LOC FOG NEAR THE COAST. GULF OF FINLAND AROUND W OR VRB 2-7. LOC RAIN- AND THUNDERSHOWERS, OTHERWISE GOOD VIS.   WEATHER SUMMARY: LOW VENTERED OVER NORTHERN FINLAND. ANOTHER LOW OVER NORTHERN BALTIC WEAKENING. HIGH EXTENDING FROM GREENLAND SOUTHWARDS OVER BRITISH ISLES.   CENTRAL BALTIC EAST OF GOTLAND VRB 1-6, WEST OF GOTLAND NW 3-8. TOWARDS NOON GENERALLY NW, OVERNIGHT W AND SOMEWHAT DECREASING, DURING DAY RAIN- OR THUNDER SHOWERS AND LOC RISK OF FOG OTHERWISE MAINLY GOOD VIS.   WEATHER SUMMARY: LOW WITH CENTER OVER NORTHERN SWEDEN AND FINLAND. C-FRONT MOVING SOUTHWARDS OVER NORTHERN BALTIC WHERE A MINOR LOW DEVELOPS. HIGH OVER BRITISH ISLES. GULF OF RIGA AROUND SW ABOUT 5. GOOD VIS.

***

 

GENERAL SYNOPSIS AT 171200UTC, HIGH 54 NORTH 07 WEST 1041 EXPECTED 52 NORTH 01 EAST 1035 BY 181200UTC. LOW 58 NORTH 54 WEST 980 EXPECTED 62 NORTH 54 WEST 993 BY SAME TIME. LOW 37 NORTH 17 WEST 1007 EXPECTED 41 NORTH 16 WEST 1009 BY THAT TIME AREA FORECASTS FOR THE NEXT 24 HOURS   SOLE EAST 5 OR 6. SLIGHT OR MODERATE, OCCASIONALLY ROUGH. FAIR. MODERATE OR GOOD SHANNON SOUTHEASTERLY 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 LATER IN SOUTH. MODERATE OR ROUGH. MAINLY FAIR. MODERATE OR GOOD. BAILEY SOUTHWESTERLY BACKING SOUTHERLY 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 IN NORTH AT FIRST. MODERATE OR ROUGH. RAIN AT TIMES. MODERATE OR GOOD, OCCASIONALLY POOR.   SOUTHEAST ICELAND SOUTHWEST 5 TO 7, OCCASIONALLY GALE 8. VERY ROUGH BECOMING ROUGH. OCCASIONAL RAIN. MODERATE, OCCASIONALLY POOR   WEST NORTHERN SECTION SOUTH OR SOUTHWEST, VEERING NORTHWEST FOR A TIME, 5 TO 7, OCCASIONALLY GALE 8. ROUGH OR VERY ROUGH. RAIN THEN RAIN AND SNOW< WINTRY SHOWERS IN WEST LATER. MPDERATE OR POOR. LIGHT ICING IN WEST LATER

 

9. Read and translate gale/storm warnings:

 

STORM CENTER 972 MBS 58N 28W WILL REMAIN NEARLY STATIONARY WINDS 25 TO 35 KNOTS AND SEAS OVER 20 FEET WITHIN 600 MILES OF CENTER EXCEPT OCCASIONALLY 50 KNOTS OVER NORTHEAST QUADRANT     TROPICAL STORM 6602 IRMA 990 MBS AT 17.5N 120.7E MOVING NORTH-NORTHEAST 5 KNOTS     SEVERE TROPICAL STORM 6410 MAMIE 990 MBS AT 21.7N 111.6E MOVING WEST 15 KNOTS MAX WIND 60 KNOTS NEAR CENTER   TYPHOON 6212 KIT 880 MBS AT 23.30N 131.30E MOVING NORTH TO NORTHNORTHWEST 15 KTS MAX WINDS 150 KTS NEAR CENTER AND 50 KTS WINDS 150 MILES RADIUS EASTERN SEMICIRCLE AND 100 MILES WESTERN SEMICIRCLE ЦЕНТР ШТОРМА 972 МБ В 58°N 28°W БУДЕТ ОСТАВАТЬСЯ МАЛОПОДВИЖНЫМ; ВЕТРЫ 25-35 УЗЛОВ И ВОЛНЫ ВЫЩЕ 20 ФУТОВ В ПРЕДЕЛАХ ДО 600 МИЛЬ ОТ ЦЕНТРА И ВРЕМЕНАМИ ДО 50 УЗЛОВ НАД СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНЫМ КВАДРАНТОМ   ТРОПИЧЕСКИЙ ШТОРМ 6602 ИРМА 990 МБ В ШИРОТЕ 17,5N И ДОЛГОТЕ 120,7E СМЕЩАЕТСЯ НА СЕВЕРО-СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОК СО СКОРОСТЬЮ 5 УЗЛОВ   СИЛЬНЫЙ ТРОПИЧЕСКИЙ ШТОРМ 6410 МЕЙМИ 990 МБ В ШИРОТЕ 21,7N И ДОЛГОТЕ 111,6E СМЕЩАЕТСЯ НА ЗАПАД СО СКОРОСТЬЮ 15 УЗЛОВ, МАКСИМАЛЬНЫЙ ВЕТЕР 60 УЗЛОВ БЛИЗ ЦЕНТРА   ТАЙФУН 6212 КИТ 880 МБ В ШИРОТЕ 23,30N И ДОЛГОТЕ 131,30E СМЕЩАЕТСЯ НА СЕВЕР-СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАД СО СКОРОСТЬЮ 15 УЗЛОВ, МАКСИМАЛЬНЫЕ ВЕТРЫ ДО 150 УЗЛОВ БЛИЗ ЦЕНТРА И ДО 50 УЗЛОВ В РАДИУСЕ 150 МИЛЬ В ВОСТОЧНОЙ ПОЛОВИНЕ И В РАДИУСЕ ДО 100 МИЛЬ В ЗАПАДНОЙ ПОЛОВИНЕ

 

10. Read and translate the extracts from Weather Forecasts:

  1. = south west force 4 later becoming northeast partly cloudy with isolated showers becoming overcast with occasional rain, visibility 6 to 10 miles, but 1 to 2 miles in rain, outlook little change =
  2. = north west force 4 to 5 backing north east, later becoming variable cloudy with occasional showers, visibility 6 to 10 miles but 2 to 3 miles in showers outlook strong south west winds, rain, poor visibility=
  3. = A depression over Norwegian Sea is moving slowly south, a cold front lying from Denmark through northwards to SW Ireland is moving SE at 15 to 20 knots (proceed by a trough lying from the Thames to N. Cornwell) a shallow depression 300 miles SW of the Scilies is moving E at about 25 knots=
  4. =winds southwest moderate or fresh force four or five stop occasional rain stop fog patches otherwise moderate visibility=
  5. =SW force 4 to 5 in Wight SE force 4 to 5 in other areas increasing to force 6 and later veering to SW in Dover, partly cloudy at first in Dover and Thames otherwise cloudy with rain at times and fog patches in Wight and Thames, vis. 5 to 8 miles but 2 to 4 moles in rain less than half a mile in fog patches outlook: fresh or strong SW wind rain=
  6. =(N. to N.E. in Shannon) force 4 to 5, partly cloudy or cloudy with showers, outlook moderate northerly wind decreasing to light in Shannon, scattered showers=
  7. =A depression centered 500 miles SW of Iceland is stationary, a warm front lying from NW Ireland to the Isle of Wight, a cold front lying from NW Ireland to cape F., are all moving slowly NE, an anticyclone over the Norwegian Sea is moving slowly SE, a depression 500 miles N of the Azores is deepening and moving east at 25 to 30 knots and is expected to turn NE, a gale warning is in operation for forecast area Henla=
  8. The low-pressure extending through North Ireland, South Scotland and the South coast of Norway is moving south at about 15 knots, a depression central 600 miles south-west of Ireland is moving east-north-east at about 50 knots.
  9. = north-east force 5, cloudy or overcast with occasional showers which may be of sleet in the north, visibility 6 to 10 miles but 1 to 2 miles in sleet, outlook little change=
  10. =SE force 5 to 6 increasing to force 7 fair at first in Hebrides otherwise cloudy with rain or drizzle and some fog patches, vis. Over 10 miles at first in Fair isle and Hebrides otherwise 5 to 8 miles but 1 to 3 miles in rain or drizzle and less than half mile in fog patches, outlook strong S wind rain showers later=

 

 

ЧАСТЬ 4. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №3

Для выполнения контрольных заданий № 5 и 6 необходимо изучить следующие разделы из курса грамматики английского языка:

Неличные формы глагола: Инфинитив. Формы и функции инфинитива, употребление инфинитива для выражения цели (задание №5). Инфинитивные обороты: «Сложное дополнение» и «Сложное подлежащее» (задание №6).





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