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Unit II Dangers (Опасности)




VOCABULARY

bank / bar flat / shoal spit = shoal head shallow/shallow water drying bank attached/detached patch cliff/reef/rock cluster of rocks above water / below water high water /low water under water = sunken awash pinnacle / drying ledge ridge wreck break / breaker least depth to avoid to extend expressions: one fathom patch off-shore dangers off the coast to be in / out of danger to be clear of danger to keep clear of to pass clear of to close the land to give a wide berth in line with t. bearing 41°   This rock must be given wide berth.   These rocks must be given a berth of 2 cables.   The danger with 4 feet (water over it) lies… The danger in a depth of 5 fathoms lies …   отмель, банка / бар мель, отмель коса мель; мелкий / мелководье осушная банка примыкающая/отдельно лежащая (мель) группа банок; участок; отличит.глубина утес /риф / скала группа скал надводный / подводный надводный / подводный подводный омываемый водой остроконечный / осыхающий гряда рифов подводная гряда, гребень затонувшее судно ломать, образовывать буруны; бурун наименьшая глубина избегать простираться   односаженная отличительная глубина отдаленные от берега опасности мористее побережья быть (находиться) в/вне опасности быть свободным от опасности держаться в стороне от пройти в стороне от приближаться к берегу пройти на достаточном расстоянии в створе с т. по пеленгу 41°   Эту скалу надо обойти на большом расстоянии. Эти скалы надо обойти на расстоянии 2 кабельтовых. Опасность на глубине 4 фута находится… Опасность на глубине 5 саженей лежит…  

Exercises:

1. Read and translate the text:

TOPIC: DANGERS

There are many dangers which the navigator may encounter. Banks, patches, underwater rocks, shallow waters may threaten the ship’s safety. When navigating in dangerous areas the navigator should avoid all these dangers.

As a rule, all dangers are shown on the charts. They are also described in pilot-books. That’s why pilot-books and charts should always be carefully consulted.

Navigation in the Northern seas is especially dangerous, because of ice. In the open sea ships can meet floating ice formations. Fast ice* is often found over shoals. Icebergs broken away from the parent formation may float in the open sea. Ice formations may prevent the ship’s movement. They make the navigator sometimes change course and speed. When sailing in dangerous areas a sharp look-out should be always kept.

 

*fast ice – сплошной, твердый лед, зд. припай

 

2. Read and translate extracts from Pilot Books into Russian:

 

5. A rock, over which there is a depth of 2½ fathoms, lies about 3 cables west-south-westward of H.

6. N. is a drying rock, lying about three-quarters of a mile north-north-eastward of B. From it a reef, over which the depths are from 2 to 4⅓ fathoms, extends in a south-westerly direction for a distance of about one cable.

7. A rock that is awash lies about ¼ of a mile westward of the northern end of Hacy, and there are depths of 6 and 8 fathoms about half a mile southward of the island.

8. Groves Bank, over which the least depth is 19 fathoms, is a detached bank extending in a northerly direction for a distance of about 7 miles of the northernmost extremity of G.

6. There is a drying ridge on west banks, about 2 miles south-eastward of South Tree Point and depths of less than one fathom extend about 2 miles farther south-eastward.

7. M. over which there is a depth of 2 fathoms, is a small detached shoal lying about 1 cable eastward of the southern end of S.

8. I. are two small drying rocks about ¾ of a cable apart, lying on the western side of the fiord in position about 2 miles westward of H.; shoal water extends southward from them for a distance of nearly half a mile.

9. A patch with a least depth of one fathom over it, lies about 7½ miles westward of the southernmost Mangrove Island.

10. A shoal spit, over which the depths are 6 fathoms and less, extends north-north-westward from Cape B. for a distance of about 4 cables. The spit should be given a good berth.

11. H. is small drying pinnacle rock, in the middle of the fiord, about 3½ miles of the norther end of M.

12. Mabessin Shoal lies half a mile northward of the outer end of the breakwater. There is a depth of 6½ fathoms over it at low water, but it should be avoided when there is heave swell (зыбь) as it then breaks.

13. Paugisian island, 208 feet high has cliffs, rising vertically from the water at its north-eastern end, and a pinnacle rock, 150 feet high is prominent. Foul ground extends about 6 cables from the southern side of the island

14. There are numerous dangerous shoals and coral reefs lying as 20 miles off the east coast of P.; this coast should be given a wide berth. A chain of rocks, from 2 to 18 feet high extends half a mile from the island.

15. Mataya reef, which partly dries, is an extensive reef of coral and sand lying eastward and southward of the island, with a narrow and deep passage between; there are some sunken dangers at the southern end of this passage and it is recommended.

 

3. Choose the right translation:

 

cliff spit pinnacle wreck drying to keep clear of off-shore to keep course least depth awash   затонувшее судно омываемый водой мористый осыхающий остроконечный наименьшая глубина держать курс утес коса держаться в стороне  

4. Make pairs of synonyms:

 

group of rocks group of banks shoal under water shore sunken bank cluster patch coast

 

5. Make pairs of antonyms:

deep dangerous above high westward southernmost outer attached narrow long safe inner wide shallow detached eastward short low below northernmost

6. Choose the right answer:

 

1. Where is fast ice found? fast ice

2. What book should a navigator consult to avoid dangers? to keep look out

3. What must navigators do in dangerous areas? because of ice

4. What do we call ice formations attached to the shore? over shoals

5. When is it recommended to keep a sharp look out? pilot book

6. Why is navigation dangerous in the North? in dangerous areas

 

ЧАСТЬ 6. РАЗГОВОРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ





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