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Функции герундия в английском предложении




Обладая свойствами существительного, герундий выполняет следующие функции в предложении:

Функция Примеры
1. Подлежащее   Reading is very useful. Чтение очень полезно. Seeing and believing are different things. Увидеть и поверить – это разные вещи.
2. Часть сказуемого: · составного именного · составного глагольного (после глаголов begin, start, continue, go on, finish,etc.)   Seeing is believing. Увидеть значит поверить.   Stop talking, please. Перестаньте разговаривать, пожалуйста.
3. Дополнение: · прямое · предложное   Exсuse my interrupting. Извините, что я вас прерываю.   She insists on our joining them. Она настаивает, чтобы мы присоединились к ним.
4. Определение (вводится предлогами of и for после существительных) This is the best way of settling the problem. Это лучший способ решения данной проблемы.   Do you know the reason for his being late? Знаете ли вы причину его опоздания?
5. Обстоятельство (после предлогов on, after, before, besides, instead of, without, etc.) On receiving the telegram he left for home. Получив телеграмму, он выехал домой.   After reading the book I put it on the shelf. Прочитав книгу, я положил ее на полку.   He left the room without saying a word. Он вышел из комнаты, не сказав ни слова.

Как и глагол, герундий имеет формы времени и залога.

  Active Passive
Non-Perfect writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Герундий в форме действительного и страдательного залога

Действительный залог Страдательный залог
Если действие, выраженное герундием, выполняется каким-либо лицом или предметом, то употребляется герундий в форме Active: I don’t like seeing people off. Я не люблю провожать людей.   She denies having invited him to the party. Она отрицает, что пригласила его на вечеринку. Герундий в форме Passive употребляется, когда действие совершается над каким-либо лицом или предметом:     I don’t like being seen off. Я не люблю, когда меняпровожают.   She denies having been invited to the party. Она отрицает, что ее пригласили на вечеринку.
Герундий в форме Active употребляется для обозначения действий страдательного залога после глаголов need, want, require, deserve и выражения to beworth:   She deserves praising. Она заслуживает похвалы (чтобы ее похвалили). The flat needs cleaning. Квартиру нужно убрать. The film is worth watching. Фильм стоит посмотреть.  

 

Герундий в форме Non-Perfect и Perfect

Non-Perfect Perfect
Non-Perfect Gerund выражает: · процесс в общем виде · действие, которое совершается одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме   Stop talking! Прекратите разговаривать!     I am surprised at being shown the letter. Я удивлен, что мне показывают это письмо. Perfect Gerund выражает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме   I remember having talked to him. Я помню, что уже разговаривал с ним.   I am surprised at having been shown the letter. Я удивлен, что мне показали это письмо.  
Non-Perfect Gerund употребляется для обозначения предшествующего действия после глаголов remember, stop, forget, regret, reproach, thank, excuse, blame, etc. и после предлогов after, on (upon), without. Однако, перфектная форма герундия в этих случаях также возможна.   On hearing the news she burst into tears. Услышав новость, она расплакалась.   Excuse me for coming late. Извините, что опоздал.

 

Герундиальные конструкции

Герундий может употребляться с притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже:

 

I insist on his/ Peter’s/ Peter taking part in the discussion.

Я настаиваю на том, чтобы он/ Петя принял участие в обсуждении.

Герундий употребляется после:

Глаголов с предлогами: accuse of apologize for approve of blame smb for feel like forgive for congratulate on count on depend on dream of hear of inform of insist on look forward to object to persist in prevent from result in stop from succeed in suspect smb of thank for think about/of warn against   Существительных с предлогами: art of chance of difficulty (in) experience in habit of harm of idea of importance of interest in means of mistake of opportunity of plan for point in preparation for process of purpose of reason for right of sense of skill in way of   Словосочетаний: be afraid of be angry for be aware of be bored with be busy be capable of be clever at be disappointed at be engaged in be excited about be fed up with be fond of be good/clever at be grateful for can't stand/bear be guilty of be interested in be keen on be pleased at be proud of be sorry for be sure of be surprised at be worried about be worth be responsible for

Exercise 1. Paraphrase using the Gerund:

Model A: He insisted that I should get rid of my bad habits.

He insisted on my getting rid of my bad habits.

 

Model B: He hates to be interrupted.

He hates being interrupted.

 

Model C: I can boast I've seen a Bolshoi Theatre performance.

I can boast of having seen a Bolshoi Theatre performance.

 

Model D: Nick is indignant because he’s been scolded for nothing.

Nick is indignant at having been scolded for nothing.

 

Model E: She went out and didn't lock the door.

She went out without locking the door.

 

1. Nick suggested that we should arrange a picnic on Sunday.

2. Children like to be read fairy-tales.

3. He denies that he stayed away from classes yesterday.

4. I don’t regret that I missed the concert.

5. Granny complains she hasn’t slept the whole night.

6. He bought the shoes but didn't try them on.

7. The football players were sorry they had lost yesterday's match.

8. The doctors managed to save the baby’s life.

9. We were astonished to see such a variety of scenery.

10. Little John was pleased that he had been taught how to ride a bike.

11. Finally she agreed to be seen off at the station.

12. I’m thankful to you that you’ve given me such a thrilling novel.

13. She managed to make good progress because she had worked much.

14. Before the doctor diagnosed the disease she took my blood pressure.

15. Mr. Brown held his cigarette but didn't light it.

 

Exercise 2. Supply a natural conversational context:


1. The world hockey championship was worth watching.

2. Small children need taking good care of.

3. His heart seemed to have stopped beating.

4. Не was sick and tired of being found fault with.

5. We enjoyed doing cross-word puzzles.

6. The driver was fined for speeding.

Exercise 3. Complete the situations using the Gerund:

Student A: Student B:

 

1. My body aches all over. (to feel like, to lie down)

2. It's all my fault. (to regret, to let someone down)

3. He is a keen traveller. (to boast of, to see many countries)

4. I didn’t mean to insult you. (to excuse, to be rude)

5. Your advice is of great value. (to thank, to help)

6. He has improved his pronunciation. (to be proud of, to make good progress)

7. We are pressed for time. (to put off, to discuss the matter)

 

Exercise 4. Complete the following using the gerund

a) as subject or predicative:


1. There's no use...

2. It was useless...

3. It would be no good...

4. Is it worth while...?

5. His ambition was...

6. Her aim is....


b) as a part of a compound verbal predicate:


1. Doctor Flegg began...

2. He kept...

3. Now I will go on...

4. John started...

5. The officer finished...

6. Suddenly he began...

7. In the silence he started....

8. He immediately stopped...

9. I could not help...

10. She just continued....


c) as a non-prepositional object:


1. He disliked...

2. He had practi­cally given up...

3. Her mother mentioned...

4. I hate....

5. I distinctly remember...

6. It involved...

7. She would have enjoyed...

8. Would you mind...?

9. He badly needs...

10. Presently he suggested...


d) as a prepositional object:


1. George thought of...

2. Presently we were talking about...

3. But that won't prevent you from...

4. He kept me from...

5. Thank you for...

6. They persisted on...

7. He has not succeeded in...

8. She was counting on...

9. He insists on...

10. My sister is never tired of...

11. I was looking forward to...

12. You are quite sure about...

13. You are fond of...

14. I'm good at...


e) as an attribute:


1. I really had no intention of...

2. She has planned a way of...

3. She gave the impression of...

4. Not much in the habit of...

5. He had the reputation of...

6. He had an opportunity of...

7. I found the cause of...

8. There was a reason for not...

9. Ralph spoke in the hope of...

10. She had a chance of...

11. He described the methods of...

12. This gave him a sense of...


f) as an adverbial modifier:

1. We worked without...

2. You're trying to fight me in spite of...

3. It would have been impossible to reach it without...

4. He had to go there himself in spite of...

5. The pupil answered without...

6. Yesterday he solved the greatest problem of his life by...

7. They looked at each other without...

8. She did not make a mistake because of...

9. I shocked them by...

10. She finished up by...

11. He proved it by...

12. He lit a cigarette before...

 

Exercise 5. Paraphrase using the right form of the Gerund:

Student A: Student B:

 

1. Mary is good at reading. The teacher praises her every time. (deserve)

2. The watch is slow for five minutes. I’ll have to repair it. (require)

3. The book is very interesting. Many people want to read it. (be worth)

4. Your plants are fading. You must water them at once. (want)

5. The dress has got wrinkled all over. Will you iron it? (need)

Exercise 6. Paraphrase the following using the Gerund.

Model A: Don't take this medicine. It's no good.

It's no good taking this medicine.

Model B: You must visit the Historical Museum. It's worth it.

The Historical Museum is worth visiting.

Model C: We couldn't hold the competition yesterday. They objected to it.

They objected to our holding the competition.

 

1. He was given a ten-day leave. He insisted on it.

2. Don't try to book seats in the stalls. It's useless.

3. Don't hope for their assistance. It's no good.

4. He is going to be examined first. He doesn't object to it.

5. You shouldn't try to win the prize. It's no use.

6. Don't try to find an excuse. It's no good.

7. His behaviour is indecent. I don't approve of it.

8. The English like to play football. It's in their blood.

9. I always feel bored when talking to this man. I can't help it.

10. She's going to see London with her own eyes. She's looking forward to it.

11. You mustn't leave the research unfinished. The professor won't approve of it.

12. I'm always thrilled when I see this brilliant actress. I can't help it.

13. He wasn't going to marry her. He'd never thought of it.

14. You've been most helpful. I'm very grateful to you.

 

Exercise 7. Translate into English:


1. He люблю вмешиваться в чужие дела.

2. Я помню, мама говорила мне, что это верное средство от гриппа.

3. Не забудь выключить газ.

4. Вдруг она перестала смеяться, и глаза ее стали серьезными.

5. Он остановился, чтобы прочитать афишу.

6. Я предлагаю дать ребенку лекарство, чтобы снять жар.

7. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы заказать билеты заранее.

8. Девочка неожиданно разрыдалась. Она была не в состоянии говорить.

9. Я привыкла рано вставать. Я люблю ходить по утреннему городу.

10. Я не одобряю, что ты купила автомобиль. Это слишком дорогая вещь.

11. Он решил отказаться от поездки в Сибирь.

12. Я не могу позволить себе путешествовать первым классом.

13. Я против того, чтобы меня посылали в командировку.

14. Его обвинили в том, что он украл деньги.

15. Бесполезно откладывать разговор с ним на завтра.

 

Exercise 8. Substitute gerunds for the models:

Student A: Student B:

 

1. I dislike it when he is doing nothing.

2. She does not like it when her son fixes things in a hurry.

3. I don't mind if you take up painting.

4. I hate it when you are impatient.

5. I don't like it when you feel upset.

Exercise 9. Complete these sentences using gerunds:

Student A:

 
 

 

 

1. Forgive (I, to take up) so much of your time.

2. Do you mind (he, to join) us?

3. Does he feel like (to stay) here for another week?

4. I appreciate (you, to encourage) him when he failed in his first experiment.

5. He's busy (to explain) the programme to them.

6. She couldn't help (to argue) with him. He was certainly wrong.

7. She thanked him for (to collect) such valuable material.

8. Do you know the reason for (he, to feel discouraged)?

9. Is there any hope of (the plan, to be carried out) ahead of time?

 

Exercise 10. Complete the following using Gerund as аn attribute:

 

 
 

 

 

1. He has no hope of....

2. I have no experience in...

3. Is there any way of...?

4. She is in the habit of...

5. What is the reason for...?

6. She dislikes the idea of...

7. You have every opportunity of...

8. There's a risk of his...


 

Exercise 11. Respond to the following:

 

Student A: Student B:

 

1. You have some money about you and can afford buying the tie, can't you? (to dislike the idea of wearing such a loud tie)

2. I hear Lizzie had been seriously ill. (take every chance of curing the girl)

3. He is a heavy smoker and suffers from heart trouble. (to give up the habit of smoking so much)

4. More and more people in our country take up the study of foreign languages. What do you think of it? (to realize the importance of knowing a foreign language)

5. The weather in this part of the country is often changeable. You'd better put on rubber boots in case it rains. (no risk of my catching cold)

 

Exercise 12. Translate:

1. У меня привычка поздно спать по утрам. Мне нужно избавиться от нее.

2. Мне нравится ваша мысль сыграть партию в настольный теннис.

3. Есть ли у вас какая-либо возможность узнать ее номер телефона?

4. Она квалифицированная сестра, у нее большой опыт ухода за больными.

5. Есть ли какой-либо шанс спасти жизнь больного?

6. Туда невозможно добраться на машине.

7. Нет никакой необходимости делать пересадку.

 

Exercise 13. Complete these sentences using chance of -ing or chance to.... Each time use the verb in brackets:

 
 

 

 


 


1. I'd like to go to the concert but I've got no... tickets now. They'll have been sold out. (get)

2. He was badly injured in the crash but the doctors at the hospital say that he has a very good.... completely. (recover)

3. 'Have you written that letter to Jack?' 'No, I didn't have a... it today. There was so much else to do.' (do)

4. There isn't a... a cheap apartment in the city centre. (find)

5. We're always very busy at work. We don't get much... to each other. (talk)

6. A lot of people have applied for this job. If I apply, I don't think I stand a very good... it. (get)

7. If you work hard at your job, you have a good …. (be promoted)

 

Exercise 14. Paraphrase the following using the gerund as on adverbial modifier. Choose the appropriate prepositions.

Student A: Student B:

 

1. Aunt Polly got very angry when she saw the broken sugar-bowl.

2. After we came to the airport, we had our luggage registered.

3. He left he room, he didn't apologize.

4. Some people can walk all day and don't get tired.

5. He waited long before he answered.

6. I learned the words. I pronounced them aloud.

7. When he was reciting a poem, he passed a line.

8. When she was copying the composition, she corrected some mistakes.

9. Though I was excited by the news, I kept my feelings back.

10. We made haste as we feared we might miss the bus.

Exercise 15. Translate what is given in brackets using the gerund.


1. (После того как я приняла таблетку от головной боли) I felt relieved.

2. (При проверке упражнения) I found a lot of mistakes in it.

3. (При переходе через улицу) he fell down and hurt himself badly.

4. They decorated the flat (расставив цветы в вазах).

5. The mother spoilt the boy (давая ему деньги на карманные расходы).

6. The whole day was spent in (приготовлениях к новогоднему балу).

7. You can learn a foreign language (постоянно разговаривая нa нем).

8. She kept on talking (нe давая мне возможности вставить хоть одно слово).

9. She left (не попрощавшись с гостями).

10. I won't leave London (не побывав в Британском музее).

11. You'll never recover from the disease (не принимая лекарства).

12. She can't go abroad (не получив визу).

13. A refrigerator is very handy (для хранения продуктов).

14. One should use a dictionary (для того, чтобы посмотреть значение слова).

15. (Несмотря на то, что он был уже зрелым художником) he was not famous.

16. I put on a warm coat and boots (боясь простудиться).

17. We were in a hurry (чтобы не опоздать на самолет).

18. She bit her lip and kept silent (чтобы не расплакаться).

 

Exercise 16. Supply a natural conversational context.

1. I learn the words by repeating them many times.

2. You'd better wrap yourself up warmly for fear of catching a cold.

3. In spite of being excited, the student conducted the lesson nicely.

4. She passed by without recognizing me.

5. After pushing the door several times, I flung it open.

 

Exercise 17. Make up sentences using the following construc­tions with the gerund.

 
 

 

 

1. could not help smiling;

2. on hearing the news;

3. the habit of reading in bed;

4. a chance of speaking to her;

5. avoided looking at her;

6. without saying good-bye;

7. remembered reading;

8. had no inten­tion of going;

9. gave up the idea of going;

10. instead of reading;

11. on the point of bursting into tears;

12. give up smoking;

13. after telling her (him);

14. what do you mean by saying;

15. before answering;

16. forgive me for being


 

Exercise 18. Make up questions using the gerund after the following words or word combinations. Let your fellow students answer them.

Student A: Student B:

 


1. to be worth;

2. to mind;

3. to insist on;

4. to prevent from;

5. the idea of;

6. instead of;

7. can't help;

8. to be tired of;

9. to give up;

10. to suggest;

11. to get used to;

12. the chance of;

13. to object to;

14. to be fond of;

15. to be surprised at;

16. to feel like;

17. to think of;

18. to thank for


 

Exercise 19. Translate into English.

1. Простите, что я отнял у вас так много времени.

2. Считаете ли вы, что эту пьесу стоит поставить?

3. Откровенно говоря, я не знаю причины, почему он так расстроен

4. Его родители возражали против того, чтобы он женился на Джейн.

5. Чарльзу не хотелось посвящать себя политической деятельности.

6. Главный инженер сейчас занят обсуждением деталей нового плана.

7. После того как он обдумал предложение, он решил отказаться от него.

8. Его нерешительность помешала ему выполнить работу вовремя.

9. Все хвалили его за то, что он был благоразумен.

10. Благодарю вас, что вы предупредили о том, что вы передумали.

11. Было очень приятно повидаться с вами.

12. Не имея чувства юмора, нельзя стать хорошим актером.

 

Exercise 20. Insert prepositions:

1. They succeeded... finding a good flat.

2. Can you stop the child... getting into mischief?

3. Thank you... coming

4. Не was accused... having broken the law.

5. I insisted... his coming with us.

6. Who is to blame... starting the fire?

7. Are you thinking... buying a house?

8. I apologize...being so awkward.

9. He has no intention …staying.

10. There is no chance …winning.

11. We had no opportunity …meeting interesting people there.

12. I have no experience …building houses.

13. There are different ways… solving this problem

14. Do you have any reason …saving such a thing?

15. Would you mind …closing the door?

16. Не denied …having seen this man before.

17. You can hardly avoid …meeting her.

18. We've just missed …having nasty accident.

19. They postponed …sending an answer to the request.

20. My work involves …filing and typing letters.

21. There is no use crying over spilt milk

22. He didn't feel …going out.

23. He couldn't help… laughing.

24. She was afraid …falling.

25. He is slow …doing sums.

26. He is interested …developing the project.

27. She is sorry …being late.

28. He is proud …having won the chess tournament.

29. He was surprised …having been asked about it.

 

Exercise 21. In this exercise you have to write the correct preposition and to put the verb into the correct form. Use the verb in brackets at the end of each sentence.

 
 

 

 

1. After a long time we eventually succeeded…a flat. (find)

2. I've been thinking...for a new job. (look)

3. His parents didn't approve...him…out so late. (stay)

4. I wonder what prevented him...to the party. (come)

5. I'm getting hungry. I'm looking forward...dinner. (have)

6. I don't feel...today. (study)

7. Forgive me...you but I must ask you a question. (interrupt)

8. The arrested man was suspected...into a house. (break)

9. Have you ever thought...married? (get)

10. I've always dreamed...on a small island in the Pacific. (live)

11. The cold water didn't stop her...a swim. (have)

12. Have you ever been accused…a crime? (commit)

13. She apologized...so rude to me. (be)

14. We have decided...a new car. (buy)

Exercise 22. Complete the sentences. Add the necessary preposition.


1. He's very punctual. You can count....

2. I'm tired. I don't feel....

3. The people criticize the government…

4. The prisoner was accused....

5. Lifeguards rescue people....

6. I am out of work. I'm anxious....

7. The workers threatened the boss...

8. This programmer is an expert...

9. If you run out of money, you would have difficulty...

10. In a tight situation you have to find a way…

11. Teenagers spend a lot of money...

12. The police charged the motorist....

13. A journalist can be accused...

14. Tactless people make a habit...

15. Stars are getting huge money...

 

Exercise 23. Translate into Russian:

1. Я не привыкла готовить себе завтрак.

2. Наконец мне удалось найти дорогу.

3. Он настаивал на том, чтобы оплатить счет за обед.

4. Мы извинились за опоздание.

5. Я думаю о поездке в Америку этим летом.

6. Он был благодарен уже за то, что вы его слушали.

7. Она была занята работой над докладом.

8. Она настаивала, чтобы ей показали все.

9. Вы подозреваете, что я вам лгу?

10. Его обвинили в краже автомобиля.

11. Он работает без остановки целый день.

12. Ты ничего не добьешься, если будешь возражать.

13. Все это надо обсудить до того, как принимать решение.

14. Вы можете исправить фигуру, делая гимнастику.

15. Он даст ответ, посоветовавшись со своим юристом.

16. Он прошел мимо, не заметив нас.

17. Он упустил возможность поехать туда, потому что заболел.

18. Не делайте этого, не обдумав все, как следует.

 

Exercise 24. Translate the following into English using Gerunds after the verbs in brackets.

1. Я не виню тебя за то, что ты обманул нас. (to blame)

2. Тогда я заподозрил его в том, что он меня дразнит. (to suspect)

3. Нам было не трудно работать вместе. (to have no difficulty)

4. Он извинился, что не пришел вовремя. (to apologize)

5. Мне удалось заставить Энн говорить. (to succeed)

6. Она настояла на том, чтобы заплатить за такси. (to insist)

7. Дэн уговорил Беллу остаться на обед. (to talk into)

8. Доктор начал с того, что пощупал его пульс. (to begin)

9. Как ты объяснил покупку этого автомобиля? (to account)

10. Он упрекал себя за то, что не попытался поговорить с нею. (to reproach)

 

Exercise 25. Translate the following into English.

1. Я гордился тем, что работал с ним тогда. (proud)

2. Доктор привык выслушивать разных людей. (used)

3. Мне жаль, что причинил вам так много беспокойства. (sorry)

4. Я заинтересован в том, чтобы найти ее. (interested)

5. Я уверен, что ты вполне способен решить эту проблему (capable)

6. Мне надоело пытаться делать то, что мне не нравится. (tired)

7. Я удивился тому, что он женился. (surprised)

8. Я был немного разочарован тем, что не встретил Чарльза. (disappointed)

9. Она была благодарна ему за то, что он все понял. (grateful)

10. Он любил смеяться над теми, кто был робок. (fond)

11. Он привык вставать в 7 утра.

12. Спасибо за то, что вы напомнили мне о собрании.

13. Я устал слушать его советы.

14. Нам удалось быстро найти их дом.

15. Нелли увлекается кроссвордами.

16. Я настаи­ваю на том, чтобы отдохнуть.

17. Не могли бы вы помочь, вместо того, чтобы давать советы?

18. Я не против подождать пару минут.

19. Она предложила сфотографироваться.

20. Он постоянно жалуется на головные боли.

21. Пол надо покрасить.

22. Мальчик заслуживает, чтобы его похвалили.

23. Я помню, что покупала эту книгу.

24. Я не помню, чтобы он сказал это.

25. Я помню, что опустила письмо в ящик.

 
 
 
 


Exercise 26. Paraphrase the following using the construction with the Gerund.


1. She laughed to herself at the thought that they would look for her everywhere.

2. Ann insisted that we should have a substantial meal at a cafe.

3. We were not surprised that Jane had taken it too close to her heart.

4. I couldn't stand the idea that anybody should get in my way.

5. She said she had never dreamt that her husband would be elected President.

6. The girl was sure that her parents would reproach her.

7. The mother was proud that her son had been chosen to take part in the contest.

8. My mother would object if I had my hair cut.

9. The librarian wouldn't object if we kept the book one day longer.

 

Exercise 27. Answer the questions.

1. Do you like your friend's wearing her hair shoulder length? Do you object to her darkening her eyes and painting her lips?

2. Would you mind your boyfriend's wearing a beard or a moustache?

3. Are your parents pleased at your studying at our Institute? Are they sure of your passing your summer exams well? Are they afraid of your failing in English? Are they looking forward to your getting a grant? Is there any chance of your being gi­ven a grant this year?

4. Were you surprised at your friend's having got a "five" for his test-paper?

5. When you come late to classes you say something about your watch being slow, don't you?

6. When your group mate complains to you of her bad toothache, you insist on her going to the dentist's, don't you?

7. Do you appreciate having a good holiday after the year's work?

Exercise 28. Complete the following using predicative constructions with the gerund.

 
 

 

 


1. You don't seem to mind their...

2. What is the reason of his...?

3. I don't understand what prevents her...

4. There's no sense in your...

5. She finished her...

6. He dropped the subject without my...

7. He liked the idea of their...

8. They saved time by Tom's...

9. There was no excuse for Isabel's...

10. I sat there listening to Arthur...

11. I don't like her...

12. He was right in his...

13. There is no point in my...

14. Forgive my...


 

Exercise 29. Translate into English:

1. Спасибо, что вы просмотрели за моим багажом.

2. Я могу похвастаться, что мой сын поступил в институт.

3. Я против того, чтобы сдавать наши вещи в багаж.

4. Он сожалел, что его друзья не попали на этот матч.

5. Я доволен, что наша команда сравняла счет.

6. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы ему дали возможность пересдать экзамен.

7. Я предлагаю, чтобы ты сходил в аптеку.

8. Все зависит от того, выиграют ли они этот матч.

9. Я была уверена, что он сдержит своё обещание.

10. Ты не возражаешь, если я буду с тобой откровенна?

11. По-моему, нет никакой необходимости рекламировать эти товары.

12. Я удивлена, что доктор не прописал тебе этого лекарства.

13. Мне не нравится, что он связался с этими людьми. Это плохая компания.

 
 


 
 


Герундий или инфинитив

Некоторые глаголы могут употребляться как с инфинитивом, так и с герундием.

 

Infinitive Gerund
1. remember, forget Remember to send the letter. Don't forget to put out all the lights before you leave.   (They take an infinitive when they refer to an action which comes afterwards.)   Do you remember seeing this man before? I will never forget seeing the Beatles.     (These verbs take a gerund when they refer to an action which occurred beforehand.)
2. regret I regret to tell you that your application has not been successful.     Do you regret not having gone to univer­sity? (the action refers to the past)
3. like, love, hate, prefer Would you like to have a look round? (= to want, to wish)   I don't like cooking that much. (= to enjoy, to take pleasure in) Do you prefer typing letters to writing them by hand? (gerund is used in a comparison)
4.mean He means to get at the truth however long it can take. (= to intend)   I agree if the job won't mean moving to another area. (= to involve)  
5. need, want, require Do you want to discuss the matter? We need to borrow some money to repair the roof.     The piano requires tuning. The house needs painting. (a passive action)
6. go on, keep on, carry on After describing the project, he went on to give us its benefits. (= to introduce a new action)   They went on talking about their business. (= to continue an action)  
7. stop, give up, end He stopped to look at the map and then walked on. (= to interrupt one action in order to perform another)   Please, stop crying. (= to cease)  
8. advise, allow, encourage, recommend, permit He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his office. (an object is used) We are not allowed to smoke. (passive)       He doesn’t allow smoking in his office. (no object is used)
9. try Try to climb in through the window. (an attempt)     Try ringing the doorbell. Someone may be in (an experiment)

 

Exercise 30. Read these sentences. Pay attention to the difference in meaning of gerunds and infinities.


1. Remember to lend the book to him.

2. I don't remember lending this book to anyone.

3. Will you stop listening to the radio, please?

4. He stopped to say "good-bye" to us.

5. Your daughter likes swimming, doesn't she?

6. "Would you like to have a swim before lunch?" "Yes, I'd love to."

7. "He hates getting up early." "So do I."

8. I'd hate to spend a night in the woods.

9. I'd like to feel independent.

10. Children like playing more than studying.

11. I meant to buy an evening paper but I didn't see anyone sell them.

12. "I want to catch the 7 a.m. train tomorrow." "But that means getting up at 6".

13. I regret being unable to help you.

14. I regret to tell you that I failed.

15. The librarian didn't allow (permit) us to talk here.

16. The librarian doesn't allow (permit) talking here.

Exercise 31. Open the brackets. Use either gerunds or infinitives.

Student A: Student B:

 

1. "Let's go for a swim." "I'm not particularly good at (to swim). What about (to go) for a drive instead?"

2. "Do you feel like (to dine) out or would you rather (to have) dinner at home?" "I'd like (to go) out. I always enjoy (to have) dinner in a restaurant."

3. "I don't mind (to travel) by bus, but I hate (to stand) in queues." "I don't like (to queue) either, and you waste so much time waiting for buses. I think it's better (to go) by underground."

4. "Would you like (to come) to a lec­ture on Beethoven tonight?" "No, thanks. I like (to listen) to music but I don't like (to listen) to people talking about it."

5. "All right. When would you like (to start)?" "In a few minutes." "Let's wait till it stops (to rain); otherwise we'll get wet walking to the bus station."

6. "Do you remember (to meet) him at my house last year?" "Yes, certainly. I shall never forget (to meet) him. He's a wonderful man."

 

Exercise 32. Use infinitives or gerunds in the correct form:


1. What must you remember (do) before leaving home?

2. I regret (remind) him about his debt.

3. Don't tell me the secret. I prefer not (know) it.

4. Do you remember (take) to the art gallery for the first time?

5. He went on (say) something, but we couldn't hear him because of the noise.

6. “We expect the administration to take a decision”, the speaker went on (say).

7. I can't tell her the truth. I'm afraid (upset) her.

8. The old lady forgot (put on) her glasses.

9. She hardly ever took a bus to the station, she preferred (walk).

10. Don't forget (take) your swimming suit.

11. The girl was afraid (come) near the dog, because she was afraid (bite).

12. I need (find) him urgently.

13. The parents regretted (allow) their daughter to stay out late.

14. He realized she would stand on her rights and stopped (argue).

15. Your hair is too long. It needs (cut).

16. They meant (be) on time but had to stop several times (ask) the way.

17. I try hard (master) spoken English but I find it difficult. - Try (watch) English video films and (listen) to tape stories.

18. It seemed so exciting to stay at the sea coast a few more days, but it would mean (return) by plane, and he hated (fly).

19. If you intend (catch) the bus it means (leave) now.

20. I remember my father (tell) me (respect) my friends’ opinion.

21. Remember (lock) the door for the night before (go) to bed.

22. She was afraid (say) a word, for she was afraid (wake) up the parents.

 

С. The Participle

 
 


 
 


Формы причастия

Voice Tense Active Passive
  Transitive (переходные) Intransitive (непереходные) Transitive
Non-Perfect (Participle I) writing coming being written
Past (Participle II) - come (для образования времен группы Perfect) written  
Perfect (Perfect Participle) having written having come having been written

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ:

1. Participle I Active выражает действие как од­новременное с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме, так и предшествующее ему:

 

Не stood looking out of the window.

Он стоял и смотрел в окно (смотря в окно) (одновременное действие)

 

Arriving at the hotel he went to his room.

Приехав в гостиницу, он прошел в свой номер. (предшествующее действие)

 

2. Perfect Participle выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым:

 

Having done his homework he played a game of chess.

Выучив уроки, он сыграл партию в шахматы.

 

Exercise 1. Comment on the tense and voice form of the participles. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. Looking round she saw several pictures which were remarkably good.

2. Being run down and depressed, he went out to have a walk.

3. Being written by a famous writer, the book drew my attention.

4. Not having been signed by the director, the document was of no value.

5. Being written in a hurry the letter was illegible.

6. Being furnished in good taste the flat looked very elegant.

 

 





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