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Unit 5. Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive




 

 

A. Past Perfect

B. Past Perfect Progressive

 
 

A. Past Perfect

”твердительна€ форма ¬опросительна€ форма ќтрицательна€ форма
I He She had worked We (Сd worked) You They I he Had she worked? we you they I He She had not worked We (hadnТt worked) You They

 

”твердительна€ форма образуетс€ при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в Past Simple (had) и Participle II смыслового глагола:

 

I(he / she / we / you / they) had read.

 

¬ вопросительной форме вспомогательный глагол ставитс€ перед подлежащим:

Had I(he / she / we / you / they) read?

 

ќтрицательна€ форма образуетс€ при помощи отрицани€ not, которое ставитс€ после вспомогательного глагола:

 

I(he / she / we / you / they) had not (hadnТt) read.

 


—лучаи употреблени€Past Perfect:

 

1) ƒл€ выражени€ действи€, которое произошло раньше другого действи€ в прошлом (оно выражено с помощью Past Simple):

 

He said (Past Simple) that he had already taken (Past Perfect) the book from the library

(т.е. он вз€л книгу до того, как сказал об этом ).

After she had cried, she felt better.

 

2) ƒл€ выражени€ действи€, которое закончилось к определЄнному моменту в прошлом:

 

 
 

 


We had translated the article by 5 oТclock.

They had finished the experiment by the end of the year.

 

3) ¬ сложносочинЄнных предложени€х с союзами hardly...when,

no sooner... than (едва Е как; не успел и Е как) дл€ выражени€ действи€, предшествующего другому действию. ѕри этом имеет место инверси€, т.е., глагол had занимает место перед подлежащим:

Hardly had he entered the room when he heard the noise.

≈два он вошЄл в комнату, как услышал шум.

No sooner had I read the first page when mother called me.

Ќе успел € прочитать и первую страницу, как мама позвала мен€.

 
 

 


 

Ќе closed the window, took a book and sat down in the armchair.

 

Exercise 1. Open the brackets using the Past Perfect:


1. He (to do) all the work by 5 oТclock yesterday.

2. The pupils (not to write) the composition before the bell rang.

3. He went for a walk after he (to do) his lessons.

4. He (to finish) the work by the time you came?

5. When he went out, he remembered that he (to leave) his keys at home.

6. The delegation (to arrive) by last Sunday.

7. I already (to have) dinner when my friend came.

8. The lecture (to begin) by the time I entered the room.

9. When I rang, she already (to leave).

10. The students (to pass) their last exam by the 26th of June.

 

Exercise 2. Make up short dialogues, using the Past Perfect:

 

 

1. Had you studied psychology before he entered the University?

2. Had your classes already begun when you came to the University?

3. Had you done your lessons by this time yesterday?

4. Why hadnТt you invited me to the cinema?

5. How many English books had you read by the end of the year?

6. Had you arrived at the station by 6 oТclock?

7. Had you packed your things by the time the taxi arrived?

8. Had you translated this article by that time?

 

Exercise 3. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Student A: Student B:

 

 

1. We had prepared our exercises by 7 oТclock.

2. I had found this book by the time you phoned me.

3. She had packed her things by that time.

4. He had left before I came back.

5. They had repaired the roof by Monday.

6. She wanted to know how I had got her telephone number.

7. My mother had prepared dinner by 2 oТclock.

8. The children went to bed after they had done their lessons.

 

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions using the Past Perfect:

Student A: Student B:

 

 

1. Why couldnТt you get into the flat? (to lose the key).

2. Why did she refuse to go to the cinema with you? (to see the film).

3. Why didnТt you see Ann on Sunday? (to go for a weekend).

4. Why did you come so soon from your holiday? (to spend all the money).

5. Why didnТt you cook the salad? (not to buy vegetables).

6. Why didnТt you ring Tom up? (to quarrel with him).

7. Why were you late for classes yesterday? (to miss the 8 oТclock train).

 

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:


1. Roger came to the theatre (когда пьеса уже началась).

2. They thought that (она ещЄ не пришла).

3. He couldnТt believe that we (сделали это сами).

4. Did you see him after (он закончил университет)?

5. The girl felt easier after she (поговорила с мамой).

6. When Mother came home (дети уже легли спать).

7. She didnТt want to speak to him (после того, как они поссорились).

8. When she arrived at the station (поезд уже ушЄл).

9. We walked home after (закончили работу в саду).

10. I went to the beach after (они ушли).

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

1.  огда вы пришли, € уже выполнил своЄ домашнее задание. 2.   двум часам все уже прибыли на вокзал. 3.   тому времени, как мо€ сестра позвонила, гости ещЄ не собрались. 4. —колько страниц этой книги они перевели к концу прошлой недели? 5. “ы закончил вою работу к этому времени вчера, не так ли? 6. „то вы уже подготовили к тому времени? 7.  то уже сдал экзамены к тому моменту? 8. ƒождь уже прекратилс€, когда мы вышли из дома. 9. ќн уже разговаривал по-испански к концу года. 10. я думала, они переехали на новую квартиру.

 





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