.


:




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ó




.

.

, , .

:

+ + = 2.

:

NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O;

Na+ + + + + Cl = Na+ + Cl + H2O;

+ + = H2O.

䳿 Na+ Cl . .

:

HCl + NH4OH D NH4Cl + H2O;

H+ + Cl + NH4OH D NH4+ + Cl + H2O;

H+ + NH4OH D NH4+ + H2O.

NH4Cl .

:

NaOH + CH3COOH D CH3COONa + H2O;

Na+ + OH + CH3COOH D CH3COO + Na+ + H2O;

OH + CH3COOH D CH3COO + H2O.

3Na 3.

:

CH3COOH + NH4OH D CH3COONH4+H2O;

CH3COOH + NH4OH D CH3COO + NH4+ + H2O.

³ CH3COONH4 NH4+, CH3COO.

.

: CH3COO + H2O D CH3COOH + OH

.

(H2O) .

K (H2O) = K ( ).

.

3:

3 D 3 + +.

.

ϳ :

.

, , .

:

.

3 3 OH, (3) = (OH), :

,

.

Kw = c (H+)∙ c (OH) :

.

ϳ :

; ;

.

, p H :

.

, Kw =1∙10-14 lg K. =, :

; (/ 3).

h , 񳺿 .

()= (3)= h, (3)= ch , , h.

ϳ , :

; ; .

, , .

+ H2O D NH4OH + H+

;

K (2) = K;

K = .

NH4OH:

NH4OH D + .

NH4OH:

.

: .

ϳ (NH4OH) :

; .

, , .

.

(NH4OH) = (H+). :

,

.

2(+) K. = Kw ; 2(+) = ;

.

, :

lg c (H+) = ½lg Kw ½lg c + ½lg K.

Kw = 11014, lg K. = K.

p H = 7 ½ K. ½lg c

(NH4OH) = (H+) = h

:

; K = h 2 c;

; ; .

, , ,

+ 3 + 2 D NH4OH + 3;

:

(2) . :

NH4OH: NH4OH D + . :

.

:

.

3: 3 D 3 + +.

: .

: .

ϳ (NH4OH) (3) :

;

.

(NH4OH) = (3) = h.

() = h; (3) = h.

; ; ;

.

, , , + , .

. . , , Bi(NO3)3, , Bi(OH)(NO3)2, Bi(OH)2NO3. , SiO32-, CH3COO- :

2Na2SiO3 + 3HOH + 4NH4Cl D H2Si2O5 + 4NaCl + 4NH4OH

-, :

SiO32 + 2HOH D H2SiO3 + 2OH

ó , H2Si2O5. ó , -. -:

2OH + 2H+ D 2H2O

2NH4+ + 2OH- D 2NH4OH

. :

2H2SiO3 → H2Si2O5 + H2O,

( NH3∙H2O) , .

. , Al3+ Cr3+ :

Al3+ + 6OH D [Al(OH)6]3

Cr3+ + 6OH D [Cr(OH)6]3; [Cr(OH)6]3 D CrO33 + 3H2O;

[Cr(OH)6]3- Cr(OH)3:

CrO33 + 3HO → Cr(OH)3 + 3OH

. , , , -:

CO32 + HOH D HCO3 + OH,

, :

2NH4+ + HOH D NH4OH + H+

, . , , , , , . :

Fe2+ + 2HOH D Fe(OH)2 + 2H+

, - , . - , , : Na2CO3, Na2HPO4, CH3COONa . ֳ HCO3-, H2PO4- :

CO32 + H+ → HCO3

HCO3 + H+ → H2CO3 → H2O + CO2

ó- , , :

Al3+ + OH → [Al(OH)]2+

[Al(OH)]2+ + OH → [Al(OH)2]+

, , , . : , .





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: 2015-01-29; !; : 1569 |


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