Read the text and answer the questions

1. When is an antibiotic tested in human beings?

2. What are the steps of antibiotics production?

3. How are semisynthetic antibiotics produced?

Testing and Producing Antibiotics

Testing. Every year, scientists test thousands of natural and chemically modified microbial substances for potential use as antibiotics. First, these substances are tested against harmful microbes or cancer cells that have been grown either in test tubes or on laboratory plates.

A substance that shows strong antibiotic activity against pathogenic microbes or cancer cells is tested extensively in laboratory animals. Then, if it produces no harmful effects in the animals, the antibiotic is tested in human beings. In the United States, human testing must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). If the drug proves to be safer and more effective than antibiotics already being used, it is submitted for approval to the FDA. Finally, if the FDA approves the antibiotic, drug firms begin to produce it commercially.

Antibiotics production involves several steps. First, cultures of the antibiotic-producing microbes are grown in flasks and then transferred to huge fermentation vats. The microbes multiply rapidly in the vats because the environment is controlled to stimulate their growth. After fermentation, the antibiotic substance is extracted from the culture and purified.

Some natural antibiotic substances are modified chemically to produce semisynthetic antibiotics. Many such drugs are more effective than the natural antibiotics from which they came.

Drug companies conduct special tests on antibiotics during and after production to ensure their quality. Finally, the purified antibiotic substances are made into pills, liquids, and ointments for medical use.

Text 6

Read the text and arrange the events in the chronological order.

Robert Koch developed methods of isolating and growing various kinds of bacteria.

A new antibiotic called streptomycin was discovered.

Alexander Fleming observed that a mold of the genus Penicilliumproduced a substance that destroyed bacteria.

Louis Pasteur discovered that bacteria spread infectious diseases.

Ernst B. Chain and Howard W. Florey developed a method of extracting and purifying small amounts of penicillin.

History of Antibiotics

For more than 2,500 years, people have treated certain skin infections with molds that form antibiotics. However, modern scientific study of these substances did not begin until the late 1800s. At that time, great French chemist Louis Pasteur discovered that bacteria spread infectious diseases. Then Robert Koch, a German bacteriologist, developed methods of isolating and growing various kinds of bacteria. Koch also identified specific bacteria that cause certain diseases.

Scientists,then began working to develop drugs that could destroy pathogenic microbes, but the substances they produced proved either ineffective or dangerous. A historic breakthrough came in 1928, when British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming observed that a mold of the genus Penicillium produced a substance that destroyed bacteria. He called the substance penicillin. Fleming recognized the potential use of penicillin in treating disease, but difficulty in extracting it from the mold hindered further experimentation.

In the late 1930s, two British scientists, Ernst B. Chain and Howard W. Florey, developed a method of extracting and purifying small amounts of penicillin. The first successful medical treatment with penicillin occurred in 1941, when a British policeman suffering from bacterial blood poisoning received the drug. But the small supply of penicillin prevented physicians from using the drug extensively. A high-yielding type of Penicillium mold was discovered in 1943, and penicillin production increased greatly.

In the early 1940s, American bacteriologist Selman A. Waksman tested about 10,000 types of soil bacteria for antibiotic activity. In 1943, he discovered that some Streptomyces, a type of fungi, produced a substance that had strong antibiotic properties. A new antibiotic called streptomycin resulted from Waksman's research.

Thousands of antibiotic substances have been found in the nature or produced chemically. However, relatively few antibiotic substances have proven to be safe and effective. In addition, certain types of pathogenic microbes have acquired resistance to some antibiotics.



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AG Argentum = silver

AL Aluminium

AU Aurum = gold


BK Berkelium ()



CD Cadmium

CL Chlorine

CR Chromium = chrome

CU Cuprum =copper

FE Ferrum = iron

GE Germanium

H Hydrogen

HE Helium

HG Hydrargyrum = mercury

J, I Iodine


MD Mendelevium

MG Magnesium

MN Manganese

N Nitrogen

NA Natrium = Sodium

N1 Nickel


P Phosphorus

PB Plumbum = lead

PT Platinum

RA Radium

S Sulphur

SN Stannum = tin

TH Thorium

Ҳ Titanium

U Uranium

ZN Zinc(um)


Wordpart of speech Meaning Example sentence
Abnormal adj not normal for the human body This amount of weight loss is abnormalfor women your age.
Ache noun/verb pain that won't go away I can't sleep because my knees achein the night.
Acute adj quick to become severe/bad We knew the baby was coming right away because the woman's labour pains were acute.
Allergy noun allergic adj a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (eg causes a rash) Your son is extremely allergicto peanuts.
Ambulance noun emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital We called the ambulancewhen Josh stopped breathing.
Amnesia noun a condition that causes people to lose their memory I can't remember the accident because I had amnesia.
Amputation noun amputateverb permanent removal of a limb We had to amputatehis leg because the infection spread so quickly.
Anaemia noun anaemic adj occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells I have low energy because I am anaemic.
Antibiotics noun medication that kills bacteria and cures infections My throat infection went away after I started the antibiotics.
Antidepressant noun medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness The antidepressantshelped me get on with life aftef Lucy died.
Appointment noun a scheduled meeting with a medical professional I've made you an appointmentwith a specialist in three week's time.
Arthritis noun a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled My grandmother can't knit anymore because the arthritisin her hands is so bad.
Asthma (attack) noun a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe I carry an inhaler when I run because I have asthma.
Bacteria noun a disease-causing organism To prevent the spread of bacteriait is important that nurses wash their hands often.
Bedsore noun wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long If you don't get up and take a walk, you will develop painful bedsores.
Benign adj not harmful (not cancerous) We're hoping that the tests will show that the lump in your breast is benign.
Biopsy noun   removal of human tissue in order to conduct certain medical tests The biopsy ruled out a number of illnesses.
Blood count noun the amount of red and white blood cells a person has You will be happy to know that your blood count is almost back to normal.
Blood donor noun a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person Blood donors have to answer questions about their medical history.
Blood pressure noun the rate at which blood flows through the body (high/low) High blood pressure puts you at risk of having a heart attack.
Brace noun a device that holds injured body parts in place You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog.
Breech adj position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up We thought it was going to be a breech birth, but the baby turned himself around.
Broken adj a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury We thought it was just a sprain, but it turned out his leg was broken.
Bruise nounbruised adj injured body tissue that is visible underneath the skin The woman was badly bruised when she came into the emergency room.
Caesarean section, C-sectionnoun procedure that involves removing a baby from its mother through an incision in the woman's lower abdomen The baby was so large that we had to perform a Caesarean section.
Cancer noun disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells There are many different options when it comes to treating cancer.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun restoring a person's breath and circulation You saved your brother's life by performing CPR.
Cast noun a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place My leg was in a cast for graduation.
Chapel, chapeline noun a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery; a priest who visits patients in the hospital If you want a place to pray, the chapel is on the third floor.
Chemotherapy noun type of treatment used on cancer patients My mother has already had three rounds of chemotherapy.
Chicken pox noun a virus commonly contracted by children, characterized by itchy spots all over the body It is best to get chickenpox as a child so that you don't get it worse as an adult.
Coronernoun a person who determines the cause of death after a person dies We only call the coroner if we think a death is suspicious.
Critical condition noun requiring immediate and constant medical attention You can't see her right now; she's in critical condition.
Crutches noun objects that people with injured legs or feet use to help them walk I'd rather hop on one foot than use crutches.
Cystnoun a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased) We're going to remove the cysts just to be on the safe side.
Deaf adj unable to hear The accident left the patient both deaf and blind.
Deficiency noun a lack of something necessary for one's health The tests show that you have an iron deficiency.
Dehydrated adj in need of water It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat.
Dementia noun loss of mental capacity It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia.
Diabetes noun type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency People with diabetes have to constantly check their blood sugar levels.
Diagnosis noun medical explanation of an illness or condition The doctor would prefer to share the diagnosis with the patient himself.
Discomfort noun experiencing pain This pain medication should relieve some of your discomfort.
Diseasenoun a medical disorder that is harmful to a person's health I understand that this disease runs in your family.
Dislocated adj when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint You will have to wear a sling because of your dislocated shoulder.
Emergency noun a medical problem that needs immediate attention It is important that children know which number to dial in case of an emergency.
ER (emergency room) noun the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries The child was rushed into the ER after he had a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting.
External adj on the outside This cream is for external use only. Do not get it near your ears, eyes, or mouth.
False negative noun adj a test that incorrectly comes back negative We had two false negative pregnancy tests, so we didn't know we were having a baby.
Family history noun medical background of a person's family members The doctor was concerned about my family history of skin cancer.
Fatal adj causing death The doctor made a fatal error when he wrote the wrong prescription.
Fever nounfeverish adj higher than normal body temperature He is very feverish, and his temperature is near danger point.
Flu (influenza) noun many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus People who have the flu should not visit hospital patients.
Fracturenoun fracturedadj broken or cracked bone Your wrist is fractured and needs a cast.
Germnoun a micro-organism, especially one that causes disease Flowers are not allowed in the ward to avoid the risk of germs being brought in.
Geneticadj a medical condition or physical feature that is passed on in the family The disease is part genetic and part environmental.
Growthnoun a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal, either on or under the skin That growth on your shoulder is starting to worry me.
Heart attack noun instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart People who smoke are at greater risk of having a heart attack.
HIVnoun the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS HIV can be passed down from the mother to her fetus.
Hivenoun bumps that appear on the surface of the skin during an allergic reaction I broke out in hives after I ate that potato casserole.
Illnessnounilladj general term for any condition that makes a person feel sick for a certain period of time Her illness went away when she started eating better.
Immune system noun the parts of the body that fight diseases, infections, and viruses You can't have visitors because your immune system is low.
Immunizationnounimmunizeverb an injection that protects against a specific disease Babies are immunized three times in their ffrst year.
Incisionnoun cut in the body made during surgery I had to have stitches to close the incision.
Inconclusive adj unclear We have to do more x-rays because the first ones were inconclusive.
Infantnoun young baby The nurse will demonstrate how to bathe an infant.
Infectionnouninfectedadj diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial) The wound should be covered when you swim to prevent it from becoming infected.
Inflamedadj appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part My right ankle was so inflamed it was twice the size of my left one.
Injurynoun damage to the body Her injuries were minor; just a few cuts and bruises.
Intensive care unit (ICU) noun section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment She will remain in the ICU until she can breathe on her own.
Internal adj under the skin, inside the organs The doctors will be monitoring her for any internal bleeding.
Itchy adj feeling discomfort on the skin's surface If you are allergic to this medication your skin will get red and itchy.
IV noun a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body The toddler was so dehydrated that the doctor decided to get him on an IV.
Lab results noun tests that come back from a laboratory and help doctors make a diagnosis The lab results have come in and you are free to go home.
Lab (laboratory) noun place where samples of blood/ urine etc. are taken for testing I'll take these samples down to the lab on my way out.
Life support noun a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe The woman has severe brain damage and is currently on life support.
Life-threatening adj when injuries and conditions are extremely serious The victim was shot in two places but the bullet wounds are not life-threatening.
Light-headed adj feeling of dizziness and being off-balance, caused by lack of oxygen in the brain If you are feeling light-headed again, lie down and call me.
Malignant adj expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells) I'm afraid at least one of the tumours is malignant.
Medical school (med. school) noun place where someone trains to be a doctor After eight years of medical school I can finally practice medicine.
Newborn noun an infant that is less than three months old You have to support her neck because she is still a newborn.
Numb adj no feeling in a certain body part The needle will make your lower body feel numb.
OR (operating room) noun the place where major surgeries and operations take place You must wear a face mask and gloves while you are in the OR.
Operation nounoperate on verb a medical procedure that involves going inside a person's body in an attempt to fix a problem The operation lasted seven hours, but it was successful.
Painnoun strong discomfort in certain areas of the body We gave your husband some medicine to relieve some of the pain.
Pain killer, pain reliever noun type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury You can take two pain killers every four hours.
Paralyzedadj unable to move certain areas of the body We thought her legs were paralyzed for life, but she is learning how to walk.
Patient noun a person staying in a hospital or medical facility The patients in Room 4 are not getting along.
Pharmacist noun a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication Ask the pharmacist if there is a generic brand of this medication.
Pharmacy, drugstore noun a place where people go to buy medication and other medical supplies You should be able to buy a bandage at the pharmacy.
Physiciannoun doctor Ask your family physician to refer you to a specialist.
Poisonnounpoisonous adj a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body The child was bitten by a poisonous snake.
Prenatal adj of the time period leading up to giving birth The woman was well prepared for labour because she took the prenatal classes.
Prescription nounprescribe verb the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms You will need to visit your doctor to get another prescription.
Privacy noun private adj being alone; personal (eg test results) You will have to pay for a private hospital room if you don't want a room-mate.
Radiation noun high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells If the radiation doesn't kill all of the abnormal cells, the cancer will come back.
Residency resident noun part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital; a student working under a doctor John is a resident under Dr Brown.
Routine checkup noun a doctor's appointment to check a person's general health I'd like to see you a year from now for a routine check-up.
Scrubs noun plain uniform (usually green, white, or blue) worn by medical professionals I have some extra scrubs in my locker.
Scrub upverb carefully wash hands before and after seeing a patient I have to scrub up and get ready for surgery.
Second opinion noun input from a second doctor about an illness or symptom I went to another doctor to get a second opinion about these headaches.
Seizure noun sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain People who suffer from epilepsy are prone to seizures.
Shocknoun body not getting enough blood flow The woman was in shock after being pulled from the river.
Side effects noun other symptoms that might occur as a result of a certain medication or procedure One of the side effects of antidepressants is a loss of appetite.
Sore adj painful I have a sore throat and a runny nose.
Spasm noun the uncontrollable tightening of a muscle Ever since I injured my leg I've been having muscle spasms in my upper thigh.
Specialist noun a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine My family doctor is sending me to a specialist.
Sprain noun/ verb an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint (ankle, wrist, knee etc) I sprained my knee playing soccer.
Stable condition noun a patient is stable if their medical condition is no longer changing rapidly You can see your husband now; he is in a stable condition.
Sting noun/verb sharp, temporary pain It may sting when I insert the needle.
Stress nounstressed adj worry that causes muscles to tighten and blood pressure to rise You need to take some time off work and relieve some of your stress.
Swelling nounswollen adj ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) growing bigger and rounder after an injury to a joint I knew my ankle was sprained because it was so swollen.
Symptoms noun pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease You have all of the symptoms of a diabetic.
Temperature noun amount of heat measured in a body; higher than normal temperature We brought Jesse to emergency because he was running a (high) temperature.
Tender adj painful when touched or used The incision was tender after the surgery.
Test results noun medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body The test results came back negative. You aren't pregnant.
Therapy noun treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition I was able to go back to work a few weeks after starting the therapy.
Transplant noun moving of an organ from one human to another The heart transplant saved your life.
Ultrasound noun a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies) The ultrasound shows that we are expecting a baby boy.
Umbilical cord noun the lifeline from the mother to the fetus (when cut at birth this forms the belly button) I had an emergency C-section because the umbilical cord was wrapped around the baby's neck.
Unconscious adj alive, but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings I hit my head on the steering wheel and was still unconscious when the ambulance arrived.
Urine sample noun a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons The urine sample tells us how much alcohol is in your blood.
Vein noun the thin tubes that transport blood around the body and back to the heart I'm just looking for the best vein in which to insert the needle.
Virus noun a dangerous organism that causes the spread of minor and major diseases The virus is contractable through the exchange of bodily fluids.
Visiting hours noun time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital I'm afraid you'll have to come back during visiting hours.
Vomit noun/ verb discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth The pregnant woman can't stop vomiting.
Ward noun a section of a hospital or health facility where patients stay I should warn you that we're entering the mental health ward.
Wheelchair noun a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place If you get in the wheelchair I'll take you down to see the garden.
Wound noun wounded adj injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep) The wounded soldiers are being airlifted to the hospital.
X-ray noun/ verb a photograph of a person's bones and organs The technician took X-rays of my shoulder to make sure it wasn't broken.


- Alcoholism;

- Allergy;

- Quinsy;

- Anaemia;

- Anorexia;

- Arthritis;

- Astigmatism;

- Asthma;

- Atherosclerosis;

- Atrophy;

- Autism;

- Botulism;

- Bronchitis;

- Vitiligo;

- Antritis;

- Gangrene;

- Gastritis;

- Piles;

- Haemophilia;

- Hepatits;

- Glaucoma;

- Gonorrhea;

- Flu; influenza;

- Dermatitis;

- Diabetes;

- Diarrhea;

- Dystrophy;

- Diphtheria;

- Impotence;

- Stroke; apoplexy;

- Myocardial infarction;

- Cataract;

- Menopause;

- Hooping cough;

- Colpitis; vaginitis;

- Condyloma;

- Laryngitis;

- Leukaemia;

- Lymphostatis;

- Fever;
- Malaria;

- Mastitis;

- Melanoma;

- Meningitis;

- Thrush;

- Drug addiction, narcomania;

- Neuralgia;

- Neurodermatitis;

- Nephritis;

- Oligophrenia;

- Smallpox;

- Pancreatitis;

- Papilloma, papillary tumor;

- Parodontosis,


- Pediculosis;

- Pyelonephritis;

- Pleurisy;

- Pneumonia;

- Gout; podagra;

- Poliomyelitis; polio;

- Prostatitis;

- Psoriasis;

- Rheumatism; rheumatics;

- Salmonellosis;

- Seborrhea;

- Septicaemia, sepsis;

- Syphilis;

- Scarlet fever; scarlatina;

- AIDS (acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome);

- Stenocardia;

- Tachycardia;

- Tonsillitis;

- Gonorrhea;

- Tuberculosis; T.B.;

- Pharyngitis;

- Furunculosis;

- Chlamydia;

- Cholera.




I he forehead is hot -

the lips are hot and dry -

the joints are painful -



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