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Pharmacy, its history and modernity




, .

. Vocabulary.

to recognize , ;

to dispense , , ;

to distribute , ;

(in)compatability () ;

to encounter , ;

concomitant ;

auxiliary ;

admixture ;

background , ;

over-the-counter drug (OTC) , ;

to crush , , ;

regimen , ;

accessible , .

. Reading.

PHARMACY: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY

Pharmacy is defined as the art and science of recognizing, identifying, collecting, selecting, preparing, storing, testing, compounding and dispensing all substances used in preventive or in curative medicine for treating people. It speaks not only of medicines and the art of compounding and dispensing them, but of their combination, analysis and standardization.

Though nowdays most drugs are prepared by pharmaceutical manufactures and are distributed to the chemist's or hospital in such suitable dosage forms as tablets, capsules, liquid preparations, or sterile solutions for injection, the pharmacist now has no less a responsible role in properly dispensing the preparation in finished forms than when he powdered, dissolved, mixed, and otherwise compounded prescriptions. Compounding and dispensing medicines demand special knowledge, experience, and high professional standards. So to become---a pharmacist one should achieve knowtectg'e' of different subjects, such as physics, chemistry, biology, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacognosy, tech nology of drugs, organization and economy of pharmacy, management and marketing in pharmacy.

Because of his knowledge of drug constituents, the pharmacist is able to predict not only the chemical and physical incompatibilities encountered in compounding but also the therapeutic incompatibilities that the patient may encounter when utilizing a drug concomitantly with other prescribed or self-selected medications. Starch, saccharose, pork fat, gelatine, cocoa and butter, among other substances, used as auxiliary admixtures and bases, include particles of medicinal substances in treatment. But they themselves are not neutral agents: they may affect the action of the drugs. When supplying both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medication to patients, the pharmacist also provides information required for the safe and effective use of such drugs. The pharmacist further serves as an information source of all aspects of drugs to his colleages in the medical, dental, and nursing professions. These adivisory roles are made possible by the vast background of the pharmacist, the drug expert, in fields such as pharmacognosy, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmaceutics. The pharmacist needs to know where the dosage form can be obtained; if the drug is readily absorbed; if it has stability; and if there is anything in the literature to confirm the reliability of this dosage form for a particular patient. The pharmacist must also know what tablets can be crushed and added to food (or used in compounding) without altering the drug's effectiveness and dose regimen. Pharmacists should be very helpful and supportive when asked for their opinion and advice. It is widely recognized that pharmacists are among the most accessible and respected health professionals.

Although the pharmacist is mainly concerned with those substances having application to public health, he realizes that many of these therapeutic aids are also utilized as beverages, and spicies, in confectioneries, and as technical products. During the past few years, as a result of the intense concern with all aspects of ecology, there has been a renewed interest in so called "natural" foods and drugs. The availability of an extremely wide variety of those products, ranging from fenugreek tea to ginseng chewing gum, has stimulated the public to learn more about them.

Progress in many fields of medicine depends on production of corresponding antibiotics, effective narcotic, cardiac and other drugs. New pharmaceutical preparations are constantly being developed for every branch of medicine. New drugs not only save lives, they help to reduce the costs of health care by limiting the need for alternative, more expensive therapy, such as surgery and hospitalization. Drugs which return people to productive activity might well be viewed as investments yielding social benefits rather than costs.

The pharmaceutical industry is among the most misunderstood of all industries. Just as society has decided it is wise to have a population knowledgeable about sex education, so must the population be knowledgeable about pharmaceutical development.

A creative act and nine months of development are needed to launch a new person. The creative act of discovering a new pharmaceutical is followed by an average of 10 years and 100 million American dollars in development costs.

III.

1. How is pharmacy defined? 2. What is the role of a pharmacist? 3. What do compounding and dispensing medicines demand? 4. What is necessary to become a pharmacist? 5. What is pharmacist able to predict? 6. What information does the pharmacist provide when supplying both prescription and over-the-counter drugs? 7. What does the pharmacist further serve? 8. By means of what are these advisory roles made possible? 9. Can you give the examples of substances used both pharmaceutically and in food production? 10. What do you know about the history of pharmacy?

IV. :

1. Pharmacy is defined as the art and science of.... 2. Nowdays most drugs are distributed to the chemist's or hospital in such suitable dosage forms as.... 3. Compounding and dispensing medicines demand.... 4. The pharmacist is able to predict.... 5. Advisory roles of a pharmacist are made possible by.... 6. Pharmacist should be very helpful and supportive when.... 7. The creative act of discovering a new pharmaceutical....

V. :

1) preventive medicine 1)

2) curative medicine 2)

3) dosage form 3)

4) responsible role 4)

5) sterile solution 5) ,

6) professional standards 6)

7) drug constituents 7)

8) therapeutically incompatibility 8)

9) prescription medication 9)

10) advisory role 10)

11)dose regimen 11)

12) productive activity 12)

13) creative act 13)

VI. :

1. Pharmacy is defined as

a) the science; b) the art; c) the art and science of preparing, compounding and dispensing drugs.

2. Compounding and dispensing drugs demand

a) special knowledge; b) special prescriptions; c) special place.

3. Pharmacist should be very

a) handsome and kind; b) helpful and supportive; c) rude and impatient.

4. The creative act of discovering a new drug is followed by

a) an average of 10 weeks; b) an average of 10 years; c) an average of 100 years.

VII. , . : ) ; ) ' ; ) .

SOME FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF PHARMACY

Pharmacy, which literally means a knowledge of drugs, or pharmaceuticals, has been a part of the healing arts and sciences since mankind first began to treat illnesses. It has developed from ancient civilizations that used parts of plants and animals to concoct various potions to eliminate pain, control suffering, and counteract disease. It has risen from the mysterious incantations of voodoo tribes and has survived the unwritten secret recipes of medicine men.

It has progressed from an era of empiriocriticism to the present age of specific therapeutic agents. A number of the drugs used by the ancients are still employed in much the same manner by today's medical practitioners.

By trial and error, primitive man must have acquired biologic knowledge that was useful in determining which plants and animals possessed good value and which were to be avoided because they were unpalatable, poisonous, or dangerous. The healing powers of certain herbs, roots, and juices were undoubtedly discovered by accident; but once these attributes were learned, they were too important to be forgotten.

Dioscorides, a Greek physician who lived in the first century A. D., wrote his "De Materia Medica" in 78 A. D., in which he described about 600 plants that were known to have medicinal properties. Of these, a surprisingly large number are still important in modern medicine. Aloe, bela-donna, colchicum, ergot, hyoscyamus, and opium are a few that were used then in much the same manner as they are used today.

Galen (131200 A. D.) was a Greek pharmacist-physician who lived in Rome and who described the method of preparation formulas containing plant and animal drugs. He devoted considerable time to compiling this knowledge, which was distributed throughout 20 books. As a tribute to his accuracy in recording his observations the term "galenical" pharmacy was originated.

From the humble beginning, medicine and pharmacy gradually emerged along separate paths: the physician diagnosed the ailment and prescribed the remedy and the apothecary or pharmacist specialized in the collection preparation, and compounding of the substance.

Pharmacy, as an independent branch of medicine was born in Europe in 1240 when the Emperor of Holy Rome separated pharmacy from medicine. However, there was no special pharmaceutical training at that time. Till late 17th and even 18th century, the universities taught their students materia medica.

VIII.

1. What is pharmacy? 2. What has pharmacy risen from? 3. Are many of the drugs used by the ancients still employed? 4. How were the healing powers of certain herbs, roots and juices discovered? 5. What plants were described by Dioscorides and are many of them used today? Can you name some of them? 6. What do you know about the origin of the word "galenical"? Can you name any galenical preparations?

IX. , , ' .

X. :

Pharmacology may be defined most simply as the study of drugs. In the broadest sense it includes, all the scientific knowledge of drugs, such as the name, source, physical and chemical properties, and the mixing or preparing of drugs in the form of medicine. It is concerned also with physiological action of drugs their absorption, action, and rate in the body and with their therapeutic uses, as well as the poisonous effects that result from overdosage.

Toxicology is the scientific study of poisons their source, chemical properties, action, detection and the treatment of conditions produced by them. A poison is a substance which, when introduced into the body in small quantities, may produce death or cause serious injury to one or more organs in the average healthy individual. It is often difficult to distinguish between drugs and poisons. All drugs are potential poisons, since overdose may cause dangerous or fatal symptoms, and many poisons are useful drugs if they are administered in small doses.


21. Chemist's Shop - the future employment of student-pharmacist

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. Lead-in

1. Translate the following words with the suffixes -tion and -ity.

-tion: prescription, medication, respiration, contribution, digestion, urination, exacerbation, contradiction, contraindication, instruction, direction, production.

-ity: authority, authenticity, perplexity, proximity, safety, quality.

2. Form the words using the suffixes -tion and -ity.

Donor, sanitate, ulcer, difference, mobile, mature, reduce, simulate, nutrient, rotate, cancel, proximal, deviate.

3. Learn the following words.

remedy , ;

retail ;

pharmaceutical ;

potent ;

designate , ;

storage ;

expiry date ;

warning ;

danger ;

essential ,;

adjuvant ;

vehicle , ;

guarantee ;

authenticity , ;

assess .





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