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IV. Vocabulary and Language. 1. Complete the sentences with proper words




1. Complete the sentences with proper words.

a) knee b) ankle c) a muscle d) foot e) lips f) throat g) forehead h) joints i) ear j) head

1. I have a sore ___.

2. He has pain in his___.

3. My _ ____ is out of joint.

4. My _ swims.

5. You have dislocated your __.

6. You have a strained ___.

7. Your ______are hot and dry.

8. Your _____ are hot and dry.

9. My ____ are painful.

10. Put a compress on your _____.

Good Health Practices.

A good health practice is something that you choose.to do that makes you healthy. Good health practices keep those around you healthy too. The following good health practices help to prevent infectious diseases.

a) Match the words from the left column with the words from the right one.

1. Cover your nose... who has an infectious disease.

2. Cover your mouth... cover an open cut with a bandage.

3. Eat foods... the same glass as others

4. Keep from getting bitten... with soap and water after you use toilet.

5. Do not get too close to someone... and wash products properly.

6. Do not drink from... with soap and water frequently and before you eat.

7. Do not use... when you sneeze.

8. Freeze, cook,... that have been protected from insects.

9. Wash your hands... with soap and water.

10. Wash your hands... by insects or animals.

11. Wash all cuts... a comb or a brush of another person.

12. After washing,... when you cough.

b) Provide your own good health practices.

Answer the questions.

1. What does nutrition deal with?

2. What is food used?

3. How many food groups do you know?

4. What properties do nutrients posses?

5. What are proteins?

6. What proteins do you know?

7. What are carbohydrates?

8. What are fats?

9. What are the functions of fructose, lactose, minerals?

10. What are essential parts of the bones and teeth?

Say whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Fructose, the so-called fruit sugar, is present in fruits.

2. Muscle, skin, cartilages are made up largely of fats.

3. The most important carbohydrates are sugars, starches and celln loses.

4. Lactose is found in fruits and vegetables.

5. Starch is an important constituent of foods (potatoes, wheat).

6. Minerals are an important part of haemoglobin.

7. Plant and animal food contains proteins (meat, eggs, milk, cheese).

8. We can live without nutrients for only about one week.

V. Speaking

1. Give reasons for becoming sick. How may some diseases be spread?

2. What diseases have you had?

3. How does your body protect you from diseases?

VI. Additional texts

DISEASE

A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases usually affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with many diseases can alter one's perspective on life, and their personality.

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease.

Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable disease.

HOW YOUR BODY DEFENDS AGAINST DISEASE AGENTS

Disease agents are always around you. Most of time you do not become ill. This is because your body defends against disease agents. Here are some ways.

Your skin helps keep many agents out of your body.

When a cut bleeds, agents are washed away from the cut.

If it is windy, dust that contains agents may get into your eyes. You blink to keep the dust out. Tears also help wash dust out of your eyes.

You may breathe dust that contains agents. Tiny hairs inside your nose stop the dust from getting further into your body. The dust may cause you to sneeze.

Juices like saliva and stomach juice kill agents when they enter your body.

If agents enter your body, white blood cells surround and destroy them.

NUTRITION GUIDELINES

Eat a balanced diet. The key to good nutrition is a varied diet llml includes every kind of nutrient. To simplify the planning of a varied diet, nutritionists have devised systems that group foods according in nutrient content. One such system divides foods into five groups: (11 vegetables, (2) fruit, (3) bread, cereals, rice and pasta, (4) milk, yЂ>y hurt and cheese, (5) meat, poultry, fish, dried beans and peas, enjiї and nuts.

Additional guidelines, called Recommended Dietary Allowamc. (RDAs), are provided in the United States by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. In other countries, simi lar groups provide national nutrition guidelines. The RDAs give healili experts estimates of the amounts of essential nutrients needed daily in maintain good nutrition in healthy people. This article includes a tahlt of RDAs.

The RDA for a particular nutrient may vary depending on person'Ђsex and age.

The RDA for iron, for example, is 12 milligrams for males age 11 to 18 and 15 milligrams for females age 11 to 50. The RDA for cal cium ranges from 400 milligrams for infants under the age of 6 month to 1.200 milligrams for males and females age 11 to 24 and for pro# nant women.

People also vary in their needs for energy. A person who plavx sports daily, for example, needs more calories than someone who docs little physical work. Children need more calories than their size would indicate because they are growing. Pregnant women also need exlut calories to provide enough nutrients for a healthy baby.

Include fibre. Dietary fibre consists of cellulose and other complex carbohydrates that cannot be absorbed by the body. It passes out <>l the body as waste. Fibre moves food along through the stomach and intestines, thus helping to prevent constipation. Many experts believe l hat it also helps reduce the risk of such rectal and intestinal disorders as haemorrhoids, diverticulitis, cancers of the colon and rectum. Good sources of fibre include wholegrain breads and cereals, beans and peas, vegetables, and fruit.

Limit your intake of saturated fats and cholesterol. Health experts recommend a diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol, a waxy substance found in many animal foods. A high level of blood choles≠terol increases the risk of heart disease. Animal products are the source of most saturated fats and all dietary cholesterol. To reduce the intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, health experts suggest choosing lean meats, fish, low-fat dairy products. They also advise using fats and oils sparingly.

Limit your intake of sodium and sugar. A diet that includes a great deal of sodium may increase the risk of high blood pressure. Sodium is found in many foods, including canned vegetables, pick≠les, processed cheeses, table salt, and such snack foods as pretzels, potato chips, and nuts. One way to reduce sodium intake is to use herbs and other seasoning instead of salt in cooking and at the table. Another way is to select fresh foods rather than canned or frozen foods.

Foods that contain a lot of sugar are often high in calories and fat but low in minerals, proteins, and vitamins. Nutritionists sometimes call them Уempty calorieФ foods, because they may make a person feel full but provide few nutrients. In addition, sugar that remains in and around the teeth contributes to tooth decay. Foods that have a large amount of sugar include candies, pastries, many breakfast cereals, and sweetened canned fruits. In place of sugary foods, nutritionists advise people to snack on such foods as fresh fruits and vegetables. They also recommended that people drink unsweetened fruit and vegetable juice instead of soft drinks.

Beware of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages supply calories, but they provide almost no nutrients. In addition, alcohol is a powerful drug, and habitual drinking can lead to many health problems. Health ex≠perts recommend that if people choose to drink alcoholic beverages, they consume only small amounts. They suggest that certain people avoid alcohol altogether: children and adolescents, pregnant women, people who are about to drive, anyone who is taking medicine, and those who are unable to limit their drinking.

MEDICAL HYGIENE

Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine, and medical care, that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease.

Medical hygiene practices include:

Х Isolation or quarantine of infectious persons or materials to prevent spread of infection.

Х Sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures.

Х Use of protective clothing and barriers, such as masks, gowns, caps, eyewear and gloves.

Х Proper bandaging and dressing of injuries.

Х Safe disposal of medical waste.

Х Disinfection of reusables (i.e. linen, pads, uniforms)

Х Scrubbing up, hand-washing, especially in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted.

Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century. Some procedures (such as disposal of medical waste) were tightened up as a result of late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola.

 


 

–озд≥л 2. ѕрофес≥йно-ор≥Їнтовний етап.


 

 

V тема: ¬ступ до спец≥альност≥. Ќавчальний заклад.
V тема: ¬ступ до спец≥альност≥. Ќавчальний заклад.

16. My Future Profession

ћо€ майбутн€ профес≥€

I. Active Vocabulary.

pharmacist - аптекар, фармацевт;

pharmaceutist - фармацевт, пров≥зор;

to be responsible (for) - нести в≥дпов≥дальн≥сть;

protection Ц захист;

health - здоров'€;

to require - мати потребу, потребувати;

composition Ц склад;

to prepare - готувати, приготовл€ти;

preparation - готуванн€, приготовл€ти;

to master Ц удосконалювати;

human - людський;

origin Ц походженн€;

range Ц р€д;

to test Ц контролювати;

quality Ц €к≥сть;

qualitative Ц €к≥сний;

technology of drugs - технолог≥€ л≥к≥в;

organization and economy - орган≥зац≥€ та економ≥ка;

of pharmacy Ц фармац≥њ;

preventive Ц проф≥лактичний;

curative (medicine) - л≥кувальна (медицина);

dosage Ц дозуванн€;

formulation - технолог≥€ приготуванн€ л≥к≥в;

activity Ц активн≥сть;

to compound Ц виготувати;

to dispense Ц фасувати;

prescription Ц рецепт;

prescription department - рецептурний в≥дд≥л;

chemist department - в≥дд≥л готових л≥к, форм;

dispensing pharmacist Ц рецептар;

manager - зав≥дуючий аптекою;

legal expert - судово-медичний експерт;

powder Ц порошок;

pill Ц п≥люл€;

mixture Ц м≥кстура, сум≥ш;

ointment Ц мазь;

tincture Ц насто€нка;

decoction Ц в≥двар;

drops - крапл≥;

things for medical care - реч≥ медичного догл€ду;

cups Ц банки;

hot-water bottle Ц гр≥лка;

bandage - бинт;

cotton Ц вата.

IV. «апитанн€ до тексту

1. What do we need to be good specialists? 2. Why can't we be bad pharmacists? 3. What is a chemist's shop? 4. What departments and rooms does an average chemist's have? 5. What drugs can you buy at the prescription department? 6. What do you know about the chemist department? 7. What things for medical care can you name? 8. Where are drugs kept in the chemist's shop? 9. Where can one work with a pharmacy diploma? 10. Where would you like to work in future? Why there?

V. «аповн≥ть пропуски словами з активного словника:

1. Pharmacology is a theoretical basis of... medicine. 2. Students... the methods of chemical analysis. 3. We test the... of drugs in pharmaceutical chemistry. 4. Chemistry is the science about... 5. Methods of... are studied by analytical chemistry.

VI. ƒайте визначенн€ науковим дисципл≥нам за зразком:

Model: Pharmacology.

Ч Pharmacology is the science about drugs.

1. Chemistry. 2. Biology. 3. Pharmacognosy. 4. Physiology.

VII. Ќапиш≥ть по три реченн€ про те, що ви нещодавно змогли зробити, та про те, що не змогли. ѕочн≥ть ≥з таких сл≥в:

I was able to... I wasn't able to... I couldn't... 1 managed to... I didn't manage to...

VIII. ѕрочитайте фрази, запам'€тайте њх:


Would you mind...? No, of course not

Could you...? Yes, of course

I'd like you to... Certainly / All right

Would you mind if I Е? Not at all

Do you mind if I...? No, of course not

May I...? Yes, of course

Is it all right if I...? Go right ahead

Could I...? Sure

IX. ўо б ви сказали у под≥бн≥й ситуац≥њ? ¬икористайте фрази, подан≥ вище.

1.The door is locked. 2. You need a dictionary. 3. You can't do your homework. 4. You are hungry. 5. You want to make a phone call. 6. You feel unwell.

X. Ќапиш≥ть запитанн€, вживаючи вв≥чливе проханн€:

Example: May | use | telephone?

Ч May I use your telephone?

1. Can |use| dictionary? 2. mind |I| close the window? 3. can |look at| newspaper? 4. alright if| sit here? 5. mind |I turn off | television?

 

 

XI. ѕопрос≥ть дозволу, звертаючи увагу на оф≥ц≥йне та неоф≥ц≥йне проханн€:

Example:

You are in a friend's house. You want to use the phone.

Can I use the phone? Ч Yes, do.

You are at your boss's house. You want to use the bathroom.

May luse the bathroom? Ч Yes, of course.

A. 1. You are at your parents' house. You want to watch television. 2. You are on a train.
You want to borrow a newspaper from another passenger. 3. You are at a friend's house.
You want to make a cup of tea. 4. You are in a crowded cafe. There is only one seat next
to an old lady. You want to sit down. 5. You are at a friend's house. You want to play
some records.

B. ўо б ви в≥дпов≥ли на так≥ запитанн€:

Do people in your country ask permission to smoke, use the phone, or help themselves to something to drink in a friend's house? What other things do people ask permission to do?

XII. «аборон≥ть ц≥ д≥њ. Ѕудьте вв≥чливими!

Example:

l. May I come and see you this evening?

Well, actually, (I've got guests for supper)

2.Can I smoke here?

Sony, but (I feel sick when people smoke)

«.—ап I telephone you at work? 4. May I open the window? 5. Can I borrow your car? 6. May I play your new ABBA record?

’≤ѕ. як≥ з поданих фраз будуть вв≥чливим проханн€м, €кщо њх використати зам≥сть X?

1. The room's so cold. X the door?

a) Would you mind closing

b) Do you ever close

c) Could you please close

d) Would you be so kind as to close

e) Are you close to

f) Why doesn't someone close

g) Is there someone at

h) Have you seen it?

i) It cost me a lot of money.

j) Could you possibly lend me $10?

k) Would you kindly lend me $10?

l) May I borrow $10 from you?

m)You haven't got $10 to spare, have you?

h) Lend me $10, will you?

i) I shan't be able to do my shopping without it.

XIV. ѕрочитайте д≥алоги. –оз≥грайте њх.

A. AT THE PRESCRIPTION DEPARTMENT

(— Ч customer; P Ч pharmacist)

C: Excuse me, сап I get this prescription made up?

P: Certainly. We have all ingredients for this solution.

C: Is this medicine for external or internal use?

P: This is for intramuscular or intravenous injections.

C: When will it be ready?

P: Come back this time tomorrow.

C: And I'd like you to give me something for headache.

P: Please, ask in the chemist department.

B. AT THE CHEMIST DEPARTMENT

C: May I have something for headache and high blood pressure?

P: We have Citramonum for headache and Adelphane for hypertension. But you'd better not take

Adelphane without doctor's advice.

C: Are there any contraindications for it?

P: The preparation is contraindicated in ulcerative diseases of the stomach. Side effects are also possible.

C: Don't you have an analogue?

P: Reserpinum, but it is less effective.

C: Well, and could you tell me how I should take this medicine?

P: Three times a day before meals.

C: Thank you very much for the information.

XV. —клад≥ть своњ власн≥ д≥алоги, використовуючи слова:

cardiac medicine, tranquilizer, analgetic, laxative,, diuretic, sedative, depressant, antiinflammatory, hypnotic.

XVI. ѕрочитайте та перекаж≥ть уривки англ≥йською мовою:

CHEMISTRY IS ONE OF THE MAIN SUBJECTS FOR PHARMACY STUDENTS

It is the science about physical and chemical properties of substances, their composition and transformations. It has traditionally been divided into several categories for study.

Studying general and inorganic chemistry students get acquainted with such subjects as biochemistry, physical chemistry, physiology, pharmacology as well.

The importance of organic chemistry in the study of pharmacy as a whole is like the importance of mathematics for engineers, because about 3/4 medicinal preparations studied by pharmaceutical chemistry are organic substances.

While studying analytical chemistry students master the classical and modern methods of chemical analysis which are used further in the examination of drugs.

Biological sciences give the future specialists the idea of human anatomy, drug biosynthesis of microbic origin.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is one of the important in the range of special subjects, it leads in testing of drug quality. It is the basis of such sciences as toxicological chemistry, technology of drugs, organization and economy of pharmacy.

The rational use of drugs is studied by pharmacology. It is a theoretical basis of preventive and curative medicine. The students study how to test the mechanism of drug action.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the main subject studied by pharmaceutical students? 2. What does chemistry study? 3. What kinds of chemistry do you know? 4. What special subjects do pharmacy students study? 5. What do you think the most important subjects for your future profession are?

 

PHARMACEUTICAL TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN

Pharmacists are trained at the university colleges. They have professional competence in advising medical practitioners on dosage and other names for pharmaceutical preparations. They determine the effect of different formulations on therapeutic activity.

Students who are at their first year study experimental physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics. Three-quarters of the second and third year are cetred at the college of Pharmacy and one quarter Ч at the department of Pharmacology, University College. In the second and third year they study pharmaceutics, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacognozy and microbiology.

Pharmacists receive university education which enables them to compound prescriptions and gives them scientific knowledge to understand the properties of the material and their pharmacological effects.

QUESTIONS

1. Where are pharmacists trained in Great Britain? 2. What do the first-year students study? 3. Where are three-quarters of the second and third year of studies centred? 4. What subjects are studied in the second' and third years? 5. What does university education J enable pharmacists?

XVII. ўо б ви сказали у под≥бн≥й ситуац≥њ?

1. ¬и зустр≥чаЇтесь ≥з своњм шк≥льним другом. –озкаж≥ть йому про свою майбутню спец≥альн≥сть.

2. ”€в≥ть соб≥, що ви прињхали навчатись у британський фармацевтичний коледж. як≥ запитанн€ ви поставите перед своњми майбутн≥ми однокурсниками стосовно навчального процесу в њхньому навчальному заклад≥?

3. ”€в≥ть соб≥, що ви репортер, €кий бере ≥нтерв'ю у ректора ”кр‘ј, щодо спец≥альностей, €ким навчають у академ≥њ. –оз≥грайте це ≥нтерв'ю ≥з своњм партнером. Ѕудьте дуже вв≥чливим.

4. ”€в≥ть соб≥, що ви молодий спец≥ал≥ст, €кий прийшов на роботу в аптеку. ѕродумайте, що ви запитаЇте у зав≥дуючого аптекою та €к≥ запитанн€ в≥н може поставити перед вами. –оз≥грайте ситуац≥ю, використовуючи так≥ фрази:

5. ”€в≥ть соб≥, що ви репортер, €кий бере ≥нтерв'ю у ректора ”кр‘ј, щодо спец≥альностей, €ким навчають у академ≥њ. –оз≥грайте це ≥нтерв'ю ≥з своњм партнером. Ѕудьте дуже вв≥чливим.

6. ”€в≥ть соб≥, що ви молодий спец≥ал≥ст, €кий прийшов на роботу в аптеку. ѕродумайте, що ви запитаЇте у зав≥дуючого аптекою та €к≥ запитанн€ в≥н може поставити перед вами. –оз≥грайте ситуац≥ю, використовуючи так≥ фрази:

Do I have to..?

Is it necessary to..?

Should I..?

Do I need to..?

It's a good idea to...

If you want you can... You're (not) allowed to...


XVIII. ѕереклад≥ть реченн€ на англ≥йську мову:

1. ” в≥дд≥л≥ готових л≥к≥в ми можемо купити реч≥ медичного догл€ду, наприклад, термометр, гр≥лку, бинт, банки та ≥нш≥. 2. Ћ≥кар може призначити ц≥ л≥ки у форм≥ внутр≥шньом'€зових ≥н'Їкц≥й або орально п≥сл€ њж≥. 3. ” великих дозах л≥ки можуть д≥€ти €к отрута. 4. ¬ јнгл≥њ л≥кар≥ повинн≥ виписувати рецепти англ≥йською мовою. 5. ¬ам сл≥д збер≥гати цю мазь у темному та прохолодному м≥сц≥. 6. ƒл€ того щоб стати добрим фах≥вцем, тоб≥ треба оволод≥ти великою к≥льк≥стю дисципл≥н.





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