.


:




:

































 

 

 

 


1986 .




 

  .
1000 .     13,9     2,2

5. [32].

1986 .

 

1000
- (GP)   18,9 4,5 2,1 1,0
       

 

6. [33].

1986 ( ).

 

  - ,
1000 20,2 1,5

 

7. [34].

.

 

, - ,
, 37 7,6 1,8
1000 75,7 30,1

, .

 

TBA - traditional birth attendant - , .

CNM - certified nurse-midwife - .

Lay midwife - ( ).

Direct-entry midwife - () .

ACNM - the American College of Nurse-Midwives - - .

MANA - the midwives Allian of North America .

MCA - the Maternity Center Association - .

GP - general practitioner unit - , .

the Frontier Nursing Service - .

the U.S. Center for Disease Control - .

 

 

.

 

1.Barbara Harper, R.N. Gentle Birth Choices, USA

Healhing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont, 1994.

( : ) .120.

2. Barbara Harper, . 123

3. Barbara Harper, . 123

4. Barbara Harper, . 124

5. Barbara Harper, . 125

6. Barbara Harper, . 53

7. Barbara Harper, . 55

8. Assian Mothers, Australian Births: pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing, Melbourn, Australia, Ausmed Publications, Pranee Liamputtong Rice, 1994.

( : , ) . 16.

9. . . .. , , , , 1984., .11.

10. Asian Mothers... .21.

11. , 1991 , (), -, . 126.

12. ..., .126.

13. Barbara Harper, .53.

14. ..., .102-103.

15. ..., .102-103.

16. . , , . 1990, .. , , , 1990. . 54.

17.sian Mothers... .25.

18.Asian Mothers... .23.

19. Daily Mail (), 16.10.1993.

20. Barbara Harper, .52.

21. Daily Mail...

22. Bastion H., Lancaster P.A.L. Home Births in Australia 1985-1987 Sidney, National Perinatal Statistics Unit, 1990

( 1985 1987 .)

23. Tew M. Place of Birth and Perinatal Mortality Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 1985 ., 35, .390-394.

( )

24.mpbell R., Macfarlane A. Recent Debate On the Place of Birth The Politics of Maternity Press, . Garcia J., Kilpatrick R., Richards M.

( ) .217-237

25. Social Security Committee Perinatal and neonatal Mortality (Second report), London, 1990,HMSO.

( .)

26. ) w M. Effects of Scientific Obstetrics on Perinatal Mortality, Helth And Social Services Journal 1981 , 91 ( ), .444-446.

) Campbell R., Macdonald Davies J., Macfarlane A., Beral V.

Home Birth in England and Wales: perinatal Mortality according to intended place of Delivery British Medical Journal 1984 , 289 . 721-724.

( : ).

) Campbell R., Macdonald Davies J., Macfarlane A.

Perinatal Mortality and place of Delivery Population Trends, London, HMSO 1982 , 28, . 9-12.

( )

27. Shiela Kitzinger Homebith & Other Alternatives to Hospital, London - New-York - Stuttgart, Dorling Kindersley, 1991., . 42.

( )

28. Tew M. Safer Childbirth, London, Chapman & Hall, 1990.

( )

29. Campbell R., Macfarlane A.Where to Be Born? The Debate and the Evidence, Oxford, National Epidemiology Unit, 1987.

( ? )

30. Chamberlain R., Chamberlain G., Howllet B., Claireaux A. British Births 1970, London, Heinemann, 1975.

( 1970 )

31. Shielda Kitzinger, . 43.

32. Shielda Kitzinger, . 43.

33. Shielda Kitzinger, . 44.

34. Shielda Kitzinger, . 44.

35. Tew M. Home Birth: the Issue of Safiety, study day on home birth-exploring the issues, Birmingham Maternity Hospital, National Childbirth Trust.

( - : ).

36. Http:// www. efn.org/~djz/birth/englandhb.html

Introduction - Why Choose a Home Birth? - .

Brighton Homebirth Support Group 119 Chester Terrace Brighton BN1 6GD 01273 557098 .

 

 





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