Рекомендуем:Почему я выбрал профессую экономиста
Почему одни успешнее, чем другие
Периферийные устройства ЭВМ
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки)
LESSON 6. SAFE OPERATION OF THE SHIP
NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS
READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT
SAFE OPERATION OF THE SHIP
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea is concerned with safety and health on ships. The Regulations include all aspects such as: safe conditions of workplaces, keeping ladders and companionways clear of obstructions, provision and maintenance of non-slip walking surfaces, adequate lighting heating and ventilation, appropriate instructions.
The master of the ship shall be supplied with data necessary to maintain sufficient intact stability under service conditions to enable the ship to withstand the critical damage.
There shall be permanently exhibited, for the officer in charge of the ship, plan showing clearly for each deck and hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings with the means of closure and position of any controls, and the arrangements for the correction of any list due to a casualty whether the ship is upright or listed.
In no case shall any subdivision load line mark be placed above the deepest load line in salt water as determined by the strength of the ship and/or the International Convention.
Ship shall be provided with an efficient bilge pumping plant and draining any watertight compartment, which is neither a permanent oil compartment nor a permanent water compartment.
The main steering gear shall be of adequate strength and sufficient to steer the ship at maximum service speed. The main steering gear and rudder stock shall be designed so that they are not damaged at maximum astern speed.
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS: 1. What is the International Convention for the safety of life at sea concerned with? 2. Where and when was the convention adopted? 3. What do the Regulations include? 4. What is necessary to enable the ship to withstand the critical damage? 5. What shall the master of the ship be supplied with? 6. Is it important to have a plan of the ship? 7. What shall the ship be provided with? 8. What strength and design shall the main steering gear have?
Exercise I. a) Find English equivalents in the text: безопасность на судах; безопасность рабочего места; не загораживать трапы; соответствующее освещение; сохранять остойчивость судна; противостоять повреждениям; герметичный отсек; авария; иллюминаторы; предельная линия; без согласия капитана; снабжены соответствующей трюмной помпой; способна дренировать водонепроницаемый отсек; руль; баллер руля; задний ход.
b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: to withstand any damage; engine room; maintenance; to drain the tank; listed ship; to check load line mark; watertight compartment; damaged hull; International Convention; oil compartment; officer in charge; walking surface; heating and ventilation; service conditions.
Exercise II.Translate into English:
1. Необходимо держать сходной трап свободным от любых препятствий. 2. Капитан судна должен быть снабжен необходимыми инструкциями. 3. Освещение, отопление и вентиляция помещений на судне должны соответствовать стандартам. 4. Иллюминаторы, нижние кромки которых находятся ниже придельной линии, не должны открываться без разрешения капитана. 5. Главное рулевое устройство сконструировано таким образом, чтобы управлять судном на максимальной скорости. 6. Мотористы дренировали этот танк (ту цистерну). 7. Судно получило пробоину (hole) в корпусе.
Exercise III.Read the words. Match the body part with the type of protective clothing.
Exercise IV.Read this article from a safety manual. Find words that describe body parts and injuries.
1. Seafarers sometimes break their arms and legs when they slip or fall. These accidents happen when they don’t wear safety boots or when decks are wet and oily. Seafarers also fall when ladders are not secure. To prevent broken arms and legs, it is important to wear safety boots.
2. Seafarers sometimes strain their backs when they lift heavy objects. Back strain usually happens when seafarers lift objects alone or when they don’t use lifting equipment properly. To prevent back strain, it is important to lift objects properly.
3. Seafarers sometimes suffer from burns when there is a fire, explosion or chemical spill. Seafarers need to be careful when they smoke or when they work with chemicals. To prevent burns, it is important to obey “No Smoking” signs and to handle chemical cargos safely.
4. Seafarers sometimes suffer from cuts. They often cut their fingers when they are careless with sharp machinery. To prevent cuts, it is important to use safety guards and to wear gloves.
5. Seafarers sometimes injure their eyes when they work with machinery. Dust, sparks, and chemicals are very dangerous when they hit the eye. To prevent eye injuries, it is important to wear protective goggles.
to strain back – потянуть спину to suffer from – страдать от
burn – ожог to hit – ударять (по чему-л.), поражать
chemical spill – утечка химикатов spark – искра
cut – разрез, порез; глубокая рана dust – пыль
safety guard – предохранительное приспособление / устройство, перила
Exercise I.Translate the extract from the Contract paying attention to the translation of Modal Verbs.
1. Sailors must keep their places clean and neat. 2. Sailors should not bring aboard any weapons, prohibited drugs or alcohol with the exception of those that are provided by the Shipowner as part of the vessel’s provisions. 3. Sailors should not go ashore in any foreign port except by permission of the Master. 4. Any seaman may request his immediate discharge because of illness or injury. 5. The shipowner and Master may issue such rules and regulation as may be necessary for the safe operation of the vessel.
Exercise II.Read the sentences. Replace Modal Verbs with its equivalents. Translate the sentences.
1. Engineers must quickly learn the location of all manuals, drawings, technical books, tools, spare parts etc. All manuals and technical books must be used very carefully. Damage to these books often happens when they are taken into the engine room. So the Chief Engineer must control that they are only taken into the engine room when it is absolutely necessary and only for a short period. 2. All watch keeping Officers must report directly to the Chief Engineer and execute his orders.
Exercise III.Connect the sentences. Choose the best connecting word. (Because, and, but, or, so).
1. He fell off the ladder. The ladder wasn’t secure. 2. The load was too heavy for the crane. The cargo fell. 3. There is a danger of toxic gases in enclosed (закрытый) spaces. You must always check the air before you enter. 4. The lightering hose (лихтерный рукав) was not secured at the manifold. The crewman was not injured when he disconnected the hose. 5. Many seafarers slip on deck. They don’t wear safety shoes. 6. There was a storm at sea. A pallet truck (автопогрузчик) broke free (сорвался) in high winds. 7. Accidents at sea happen because of negligence (небрежность). They happen because equipment is not maintained. 8. The fire started in the pump room. It spread to the engine room. 9. A seafarer broke his arm. A steel pipe fell on him. 10. Fires can start if electrical equipment is faulty (неисправный, повреждённый). They can start if cigarettes are not extinguished (затушены) properly.
Exercise IV.Look at the verbs. Complete the sentences. Choose a verb for each command: get call lower smoke enter close proceed stop
1. Fire in the galley! __ a fire extinguisher! 2. They are loading the fuel. Don’t __ on deck! 3. Man overboard! __ the lifeboat! 4. Emergency! __ to your muster stations (место сбора по тревоге) immediately! 5. Flooding (потоп) in the engine room! __ the Master! 6. The oil is leaking! __ the pumps! 7. Fire in the cabins! __ all fire doors! (противопожарные двери) 8. The air is toxic! Don’t __ that area!
Exercise V.Complete the sentences with must / must not.
1. All personnel __ wear safety goggles while operating this machinery. 2. There is a leak! You __ switch off the pump immediately! 3. There is gas in the space! You __ enter! 4. You __ use safety equipment.
5. We __ smoke in the holds. 6. There is a smell of gas in the hold. You __ wear your breathing apparatus (дыхательные аппараты). 7. There is an electrical fire. You __ get water fire extinguisher. 8. There is a man overboard. You __ lower lifeboat.
Exercise VI.Look at the graph. It shows the number and types of incidents that occurred at sea last year. Use a dictionary to check that you know each type of incident. Read the report. Complete the report with numbers from the graph.
FRONTIER SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANY
Summary of Incidents at Sea
Last year there were 63 incidents at sea. This included __ spills, 2 of which resulted in pollution. Fourteen vessels grounded and ___ vessels collided in bad weather conditions.
There were ___ reports of personal injury. These injuries usually occurred because seamen did not take care with machinery or because they did not wear the correct type of protective clothing.
____ ships reported fires on board during the year: in 2 incidents, the fires started in the galley; in another 2 incidents, fires started when chemical containers exploded; and in 3 incidents, the fires occurred because of electrical faults.
On ____ occasions vessels lost power because the crew did not follow correct procedures during manoeuvring. There were __ accounts of cargo contamination: 1 cargo of grain suffered from heat damage, and in the other case, water leaked into the hold and damaged a fruit cargo.
to ground – сесть на мель procedures – зд. действия
injury – повреждение contamination – загрязнение
electrical faults – повреждение в электрической цепи
heat damage – повреждениевысокими температурами
Exercise VII.Look at the next graph. It shows the incidents that occurred at sea last month. Read the report. Complete the sentences in the report with the verb. Change each verb to the Past Simple.
suffer lose report be (2) explode collide ground start damage include leak
FRONTIER SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANY
Last month there ____ 18 incidents at sea. There ____ 4 spills. There were no reports of personal injury. Two vessels ____ because of low water in port and another 2 ships ____ in foggy conditions. Six ships ___ fires on board: in 5 incidents the fires ___ in the engine room and in 1 incident the fire started when chemical containers ____. There ___ 1 incident of a vessel which ___ power during ship manoeuvring. Three vessels ___ cargo contamination when water ___ into the hold and ___ the cargo.
Low water – отлив
Foggy conditions – условия тумана
Exercise VII.Retell the text in 5-7 sentences.
LESSON 7. SANITARY RULES