LESSON 8. FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES
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LESSON 8. FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES




NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS

short circuit bearing ignition spark welding shortcomings validity expiration date fire extinguishing system fire extinguisher light type fuel heavy fuel oil low thermal conductivity negligence aim inflammable to lessen tightness of cover inscription thermal conductivity in a word delivery hose lever discharge hose spare parts in a word hatch downward pressure control lever короткое замыкание подшипник возгорание искра cварка недостатки пригодность истечение срока годности системы огнетушения огнетушитель легковоспламеняющееся топливо трудновоспламеняющееся топливо низкая теплопроводимость халатность цель легковоспламеняющийся уменьшать, снижать герметичность крышки надпись теплопроводность одним словом; короче говоря нагнетательный (напорный) рукав рычаг выкидной шланг запасные части (детали) одним словом; короче говоря люк давление на нижние слои рукоятка, ручка управления

 

READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT

FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES

Fire prevention measures of ships are provided by its constructive, organizational and technical aspects and also by adequate actions of the crew in their fight against fire. It is noted that considerable per cent of fire accidents are connected with the explosion and ignition of light type fuel. Explosions of hydraulic systems, short circuits, defects in electrical equipment have also high frequency. Usually fire in the engine room is the result of lubricants ignition in the bearings of the main and auxiliary mechanisms.

The other type of “thermal” accidents takes place because of the open fire that is because of sparks during welding process. But we mustn’t forget about negligence of the crew or ship builder’s shortcomings. It is necessary to observe requirements on storage of dangerous materials. Hold should be dry and clean with appropriate ventilation. Paints must have low thermal conductivity with the aim to lessen the spreading speed of fire.

Inflammable materials must have inscription and marking, be checked periodically on validity and expiration date, leakage, tightness of cover and so on. It is compulsory for every ship to have highly efficient fire extinguishing system and also individual oxygen apparatus, means for hands protection, in a word everything that is necessary to safe life of every man at sea.

 

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:1. What is the main reason of fire on board a ship? 2. What measures can we take to lessen the spreading speed of fire? 3. Why is it necessary to have markings and inscriptions on inflammable goods? 4. What is compulsory to have on board every ship? 5. How do builder’s shortcomings influence on origin of fire?

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise I. a) Find English equivalents in the text: короткое замыкание; оборудование; вспомогательный механизм; сварка; система огнетушения; возгорание; частота; проводимость; истечение срока годности; подшипник; распространение огня; меры предотвращения огня; взрыв гидравлических систем.

 

b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: hydraulic system, short circuit, frequency, engine room, lubricant, ignition, bearing, auxiliary mechanism, spark, welding, negligence, shortcoming, conductivity, inscription, validity, expiration date, extinguishing system, oxygen apparatus.

 

Exercise II.Translate Into English.

В процессе сварки искры являются причиной пожара. 2. Каждое судно должно быть оборудовано системой огнетушения. 3. Все недостатки устраняются до выхода судна в море. 4. Каюты должны содержаться в чистоте и своевременно вентилироваться. 5. Низкая теплопроводность красок снижает возможность быстрого распространения огня.

 

Exercise III.Match the beginning of the sentence with its ending. Read statements about Fire Spread.

Heat and fire may spread in one or more of the following four different ways:

1. Direct heat transfer 2. The spread of heat via gases, liquids, or hot air circulating 3. Radiation. Materials may ignite 4.Direct Burning a.when they are kept near electric heaters or other heating appliances. b. when heat travels along or through unprotected steelwork. c. through stairwells, lift shaft, ventilation, etc. d. when combustible materials come into contact with a naked flame. For example, a mattress is ignited by a lighted cigarette.

 

Exercise IV.Read and translate the dialogue.

John Brown: How do you do! I am a port fire control officer John Brown.

Mr. Klimov: How do you do Mr. Brown. I am 3rd officer. My name is Klimov. What can I do for you?

John Brown: Well, I am to inspect your ship. First of all I want to see the hatches where cargo operations are going on. Under the rules of our port you should place fire extinguishers at each hatch and lay fire hoses connected with shore pumps.

Mr. Klimov: Certainly, sir. We don’t violate the rules. We’ve posted a deck-hand on fire watch. He makes regular rounds around the ship and reports to me every half an hour.

John Brown: Very good. And now I’ll see the certificate for the ship’s fire equipment… I see everything is ship-shape. All certificates are valid and I have no claims.

 

Exercise V.Make up your own dialogue concerning fire prevention measures on board a ship.

 

Exercise VI. Read the information provided about types of fire and fill in the table.
Be advised that Multiple classification systems exist, with different designations for the various classes of fire. The United States uses the NFPA (National Fire Protection Assosiation) system. Europe uses the European Standard “Classification of fires”.

TYPES OF FIRE

(European Standard)

It is important to find out the type of fire because if you fight with a fire in incorrect way, it can only increase the danger.

CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C CLASS D
Fire of solid materials usually of an organic nature such as wood, paper, furniture, plastics, rope, etc. Fire of liquids such as petrol, oils, paraffin, paint, cooking fats, etc.   Fire of gases such a propane, butane, acetylene, etc.   Fire of burning metals such as aluminum, magnesium, etc.  

 

ELECTRICAL FIRE: Electricity does not burn. An electrical fire is a Class A, B, C or D fire. After the electrical circuits are isolated, the fire is extinguished as normal according to its normal class.

What is burning? Fire Type
A B C D
Wood        
Petrol        
Wax        
A Television        
Manganese        
Paint Stripper        
Olive Oil        
Cupboard        

 

Exercise VII.Read about Fire Extinguishers and be ready to answer the questions.

A fire extinguisher is designed to attack a fire onboard in the early stage.

Water, Foam and Dry Powder

Extinguishers with water, foam or dry powder operate in the same principal. In each case water, foam or dry powder are stored in a welded container. When the valve is opened, CO2 gas has a downward pressure on the water, foam, or dry powder and forces it as a siphon tube and out through the delivery hose. The discharge is controlled by squeezing and releasing the operating head valve or by a control lever at the end of the discharge hose.

 

WATER – USE on wood paper, plastics

DO NOT USE on fires involving liquid (oils, paints, fats, etc. )

DO NOT USE on fires where there is live electricity.

 

FOAM – USE on liquid spills and liquid fires of oils, paints (Class B fires)

DO NOT USE on fires where there is live electricity.

 

DRY POWDER

Powder can be used for liquids (Class B fires). Powder may also, with the correct technique, be used to extinguish a high pressure gas flame (Class C fires). Dry Powder gives as fast flame knock-down, and may be used on fires on live electrical equipment.

 

True or False?

1. Extinguishers with water, foam or dry powder operate in the completely different principal.

2. Extinguishers with water can be used on fires involving liquid.

3. Powder can be used for liquids.

4. Extinguishers with foam can be used on fires where there is live electricity.

5. Dry powder extinguisher is used on wood and plastics.

6. Class C fires are extinguished with Dry powder extinguishers.

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise I.Translate the sentences paying attention of the functions of infinitives.

1. They wanted to repair the equipment. 2. Everybody knows the bulkers to be applied for carrying of bulk cargo. 3. I’d like to see the list of spare parts to be ordered. 4. The problems with an engine are to be avoided. 5. The main goal of a hull is to protect a ship from the damage. 6. Cargo is known to be taken only under the contract terms. 7. We suppose the fuel pumps to be replaced completely. 8. The ro/ro passenger liners are designed to carry a great number of passengers that is why the safety level on board should be sufficiently high. 9. To carry the liquid cargo the vessels have special tanks. 10. In case of emergency one way out is to call at any ports for repairs.

Exercise II.Retell the text “Fire prevention measures”.

 

Exercise III.Speak on the following topics:

1. Adequate action of the crew in their fight with fire.

2. Smoking is one of the most common causes of fire outbreaks.

3. Hazardous materials on the vessel.What rules should the crew observe?

 

LESSON 9. FIRE-FIGHTING

negligence list to list low visibility combustible / flammable transverse bulkhead adjacent to break out (broke, broken) foam extinguisher powder extinguisher fire axe fire hose with nozzle fire bucket fire main shovel crowbar sprinkler   to restrict to contain небрежность, невнимательность, халатность крен, список крениться, составлять список плохая видимость легковоспламеняющийся, огнеопасный поперечная переборка примыкающий начинаться, возникать (огонь), разразится (шторм) пенный огнетушитель порошковый огнетушитель пожарный топор пожарный рукав с насадкой пожарное ведро пожарный трубопровод лопата лом сплинкерная система, противопожарный разбрызгиватель ограничивать ограничивать, сдерживать, подавлять

NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS

 

READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT

Fire-Fighting

Accidents can be caused by negligence of a crewmember or by external factor. The crewmember can choose wrong personal protective equipment or incorrect usage of life-saving appliances or fire-fighting equipment.

A fire doesn’t break out if you perform all the precautions. When a fire breaks out, you’ll try to restrict to its area. The larger fire is, the more difficult it is extinguished. The cargo holds often contain large amount of combustible substances. It is not always possible to restrict fire there. Special transverse bulkheads of the cargo holds prevent spread of the fire to adjacent compartment.

There is the following fire-fighting equipment on board a ship: ship’s fire alarm system, fire extinguishers, fire hoses with the nozzles, boxes with sand, buckets, fire shovels, axes and crowbars. For accommodation area there is automatic sprinkler system. The CO2 system is used in the engine room.

All the fire-fighting systems and equipment should be in good operating condition ready for immediate use. The deck department is responsible for all portable fire-fighting equipment, while the engine department takes care of all fixed fire-fighting systems.

 

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:1. What are the reasons of the accidents? 2. What
can any crewmember do to prevent the fire breakout? 3. Why is it impossible to restrict the fire in the cargo hold? 4. What fire-fighting equipment do you know?
5. What system is used on galley?

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise I. a) Find English equivalents in the text: пенный огнетушитель, потушить огонь, пожарный топор, легковоспламеняющиеся вещества, пожарный рукав, жилые помещения, пожарная тревога, порошок, пожарный шланг, поперечные переборки, распространение огня, отсек, лопаты.

 

b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: fire hoses, to fight against, sand box, cargo hold, breathing apparatus, combustible substances, to neglect, crowbar, broken out fire, fire-extinguishing equipment, spot, precautions, fire bucket.

 

Exercise II. According to the Unites States classification of Fires there are only three types of Fire.

 

Class Fire Type Material Examples Suitable
A ordinary combustibles paper, wood, cloth, cardboard, plastic rubber
B flammable liquids and gases gasoline, grease, kerosene, oil, spirits, solvents, some paints
C electrical equipment appliances, computers, wiring, fuse, boxes, power tools

 

Exercise III. Translate into Russian.

1. There are three classes of fire. Each class has its own type of the fire extinguishers. 2. We use foam fire extinguisher to extinguish combustible liquids on fire. 3. Which types of fire extinguishing systems is used in machinery space?
4. On board of his last ship there were ship’s fire alarm system, several fire extinguishers and some other fire-fighting equipment. 5. Special teams fight against the fire on board of a ship.

 

Exercise IV. Translate into English.

1. Я знаю три типа огнетушителей: пенный, порошковый и углекислотный (carbon-dioxide). 2. Пожарные рукава с насадками, ящики с песком, ведра, лопаты и топоры – это противопожарное оборудование. 3. Какого цвета порошковый огнетушитель? 4. На камбузе, в кают-кампании и в каютах при тушении пожара используется сплинкерная система. 5. В трюмах и машинном отделении используется углекислотная система пожаротушения.
6. Огнетушители могут быть автоматическими или ручными, а также углекислотными, пенными, порошковыми и водными. 7. Пожары класса А вызываются горением таких веществ как дерево, бумага, ткани, пластмасса, резина. 8. Пожары класса А наиболее эффективно тушатся водой, но можно применить пенные и порошковые огнетушители. 9. Когда горит электрическое оборудование или бытовые приборы (home appliances), экипаж должен применить углекислотные огнетушители. 10. На борту этого судна должно было использоваться следующее противопожарное оборудование: судовая пожарная сигнализация, огнетушители, ящик с песком, ведра, пожарные топоры и пожарные шланги (гидранты).

 

Exercise V.Find right variant for each statement.

Fire prevention measures

1. Foam can be used on this type of fire. 2. You can’t use this extinguisher on an electrical fire. 3. This fire extinguisher has a blue flash. 4. These help stop fires from spreading. 5. You should use this on a Chip Pan Fire. 6. You must only use this on an electrical fire. a. powder b. foam c. fire blanket d. carbon dioxide e. fire doors f. petrol

Exercise VI.Read and translate the dialogue.

Seafarer 1: There’s been an explosion in the engine room! Quick! There’s a fire!

Seafarer 2: Call the Captain!

Seafarer 1: Engine room to bridge! Emergency! Emergency! Explosion in the engine room!

Captain: Captain speaking. What’s the damage?

Seafarer 1: It’s bad, Sir – there’s fire and a lot of smoke!

Captain: Can you contain the fire?

Seafarer 1: I don’t think so, Sir – it’s out of control!

Captain: Get everyone out now! Do not attempt to extinguish the fire! Repeat. Do not attempt to extinguish the fire!!! Sound the alarms immediately!

Seafarer 1: Yes, Sir!

Loudspeaker: Attention! Attention! This is your Captain speaking. Fire in the engine room! This is an emergency! Proceed to your muster stations immediately!

Loudspeaker: Attention! Attention! Fire is spreading! Prepare to abandon ship! Prepare to abandon ship!

Question: What is the emergency?

Answer: There is a fire in the engine room.

 

Exercise VII.Tell about fire-fighting on board a ship.





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