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NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS.
READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT
Historically ships have played a significant role in the global transmission of infectious diseases. For example, ships can transport infected humans and other vectors, such as mosquitoes and rats, between ports and, therefore (следовательно), act as a means of international disease transfer.
The International Sanitary Regulations were developed in 1951 to prevent the spread of six infectious diseases – cholera, plague (чума), yellow fever (жёлтая (тропическая) лихорадка), smallpox (оспа), typhus (тиф) and relapsing fever (вшиный тиф). These regulations were revised (пересмотрены) and renamed the International Health Regulations (IHR) in 1969 and they are in force up till now.
The purpose of the International Health Regulations is to provide security against the international spread of disease while avoiding unnecessary interference with international traffic. International Sanitary Rules are introduced in every country by the correspondent act of the Health Department.
If any foreign vessel doesn’t fulfill Sanitary Rules regime then she cannot be detained in the port with the exception of time necessary for compulsory or forced sanitary treatment in case of yellow fever. The vessel can leave the port but during the whole period of voyage she cannot call at any other port of the same State Sanitary Rules of which had been broken by her.
Sanitary inspection of the vessels is conducted round the clock at the berth and only in the special cases in the roadstead when there are ill men on board, lack of water, food, fuel, etc.
Pumping out of the ballast waters in the port water area is conducted only with the permission of the Sanitary Service. After washing the holds, water can be pumped out only with the permission of Sanitary Quarantine Service. All Sanitary operations are registered in the special book and Sanitary Certificate is given in case when all requirements are observed.
Isolation of ill persons, prohibition on import or export of certain cargoes, disinfection, and deratisation are maintained in the interests of all countries and nations. It is estimated that 1. 2 million seafarers are employed on general cargo vessels. Many spend months at sea, sometimes in remote regions of the world. On long voyages the ships are isolated communities. Good sanitation conditions on vessels are crucial both to the health of seafarers and to the shipping industry’s ability to attract and retain competent employees.
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:1. Why have the ships played significant role in the global transmission of infectious diseases? 2. What regulations were developed in 1951? 3. List six infectious diseases the International Sanitary Regulations should prevent. 4. Can the ship be detained to the port, if she doesn’t fulfill sanitary rules regime?
Exercise I. a) Find English equivalents in the text: зараженные люди; инфекционное заболевание; отдел здравоохранения; за исключением; обязательное лечение; лихорадка; запрет на ввод/вывод; дезинфекция; круглосуточный режим; соблюдать требования; получать сертификат; распространять болезнь; покинуть порт.
b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: to be registered; sanitary rules; to get permission; pumped out water; compulsory treatment; to call at the port; to meet requirements; to fulfill orders; foreign vessel; global transmission; means of transfer; spread of disease; unnecessary interference; ill man on board; remote regions.
Exercise II.Translate into English.
1. Международные санитарные правила были разработаны в 1951 году. 2. Департамент здравоохранения осуществляет наблюдения за выполнением санитарных требований. 3. В любой стране существуют запреты на ввоз и вывоз определённых товаров и грузов. 4. В случае лихорадки лечение является обязательным. 5. Санитарный осмотр судов ведется круглосуточно. 6. Все операции регистрируются в специальном журнале. 7. В случае соблюдения всех требований судну выдаётся сертификат.
Exercise I.Read historic note paying attention to the verbs in italics. Define the Tense and Voice (Active/Passive) used.
Historically ships have played an important role in transmitting infectious diseases around the world. The spread of cholera in the nineteenth century was thought to be linked to trade routes and facilitated by merchant shipping. Efforts to control human disease on ships, can be traced back to the Middle Ages when in 1377, Venice and Rhodes denied access to ships carrying passengers infected with the plague and the term “quarantine” was coined. On arrival travellers were detained in isolation for 40 days before they were allowed to proceed to their final destination. Overcrowding on ships, filth and lack of personal hygiene were often associated with epidemics of typhus fever. Preventive measures, such as quarantine, delousing, and maintaining personal cleanliness by use of soap, were gradually adopted, and the incidence of typhus decreased.
filth – отходы preventive measure – профилактические мероприятия
hygiene – гигиена overcrowding – переполнение, перегруженность
delousing – дезинсекция efforts – попытки
Exercise II.Translate the sentences paying attention to the function of the infinitives.
1. Water to be used for potable (питьевой) water purposes aboard ships must be provided with sanitary safeguards (средства защиты) from the shore source, through the shore water distribution system, including connections to the ship system, and through the ship system at each outlet in order to prevent contamination or pollution of the water during ship operation. 2. Water boats and water barges are vessels especially constructed and equipped to receive and provide water for both potable and nonpotable water systems aboard ships under conditions where direct shore delivery is not practicable. 3. The overall objectives for investigating disease outbreaks (вспышки) are: to control ongoing outbreaks; to detect and separate the source from passengers and crew; to identify specific risk factors related to the host, the agent and the ship; to determine factors that contributed to contamination, growth and survival of the suspected agent; to prevent future outbreaks.
Exercise III.Make the sentences using a Complex Object:
Model: “Dockers shall stow the cargo into the holds,” the captain said.
The captain wanted the dockers to stow the cargo into the holds.
1. “The cargo must be delivered in a month,” the chief mate said. The chief mate expected _____. 2. “The captain ordered: “Radio-officer! Transmit the telegram” The captain wanted _____. 3. “The goods should be unloaded in 5 hours,” the motor-man said. The motor-man expected _____. 4. “Render him first aid,” the captain said to the ship doctor. The captain wanted _____. 5. “We should reduce the danger of a hurricane. ” The First Mate said. The First Mate said _____. 6. “The ship must be not delayed,” our captain said. Our captain _____. 7. The teacher asked me: “Tell me the ship’s type and tonnage. ” The teacher _____. 8. The master ordered: “Batten down watertight hatches and portholes!” The master _____. 9. The captain asked: “Are life-saving appliances ready for use?” The captain _____. 10. “Check the cargo in the holds,” the chief mate said to me. The chief mate _____.
Exercise IV. Make the sentences using Complex Subject.
Model: The ship has just left for Riga (to seem). – The ship seems to have left for Riga.
1. The weather has affected the work of the apparatus (to find). 2. The volume of cargo will increase (to know). 3. The passenger ship arrives in St. Petersburg at 5 a.m. tomorrow (to expect). 4. This tramp will leave for Odessa in the afternoon
Exercise V.Translate info English.
1. Известно, что это очень старое судно. 2. Между этими двумя видами судов существует большая разница. 3. Судно, вероятно, прибудет сегодня вечером.
Exercise VI.Change the sentences using Complex object and Participle I.
Model: She was singing. I heard her. – I heard her singing.
1. The sailors were defining the ship’s position. I saw them. 2. I noticed the Chief Mate. He was checking measuring devices and other equipment. 3. The officer of watch was navigating the liner. I watched him. 4. I saw some sailors. They were plotting their route on charts. 5. The Captain saw the Radio officer. He was receiving a radiogram. 6. Our engineer was repairing the main engine. We watched him. 7. We saw the ship. She was sinking. 8. Our engineer was overhauling the radio-communication. I saw him. 9. He was regulating the air-conditioning system. I watched him. 10. We heard our Captain. He was giving commands. 11. They saw their engineer. He was regulating a radio direction finder. 12. The captain watched us. We were overhauling the satellite communication device. 13. The dockers were loading the cargo. We watched him. 14. They were lubricating the equipment. We saw them. 15. The storm was coming. We felt it. 16. He was tuning the emergency transmitter. The Captain noticed him.
Exercise VII.Paraphrase the sentences using Complex Object and Infinitive.
Model: He entered the room. I noticed him. – I noticed him enter the room.
1. The vessel anchored at Kronstadt. We saw her __. 2. The ship proceeded to the port of destination. My friend saw her __. 3. Our ship avoided the danger. We felt her___. 4. The vessel arrived at the port on time. We noticed her___. 5. The sailors scrubbed the ship’s deck. The boatswain watched them ___. 6. Our Chief Mate checked all auxiliary equipment. We saw him ___. 7. The stevedores fastened the cargo. We watched them ___. 8. He repaired the pump. We heard him ___.
Exercise VIII.Retell the text.
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