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V. ѕрочитайте и устно переведите на русский €зык весь текст. ѕерепишите и письменно переведите абзац є 3,4


Natural Monopolies

Natural monopolies is quiet popular organization form thatТs widely used in many countries. In most countries natural monopolies are basically the same, they are concentrated within same sectors of economy: railroad, underground, telecommunications, post etc. The main problem in that case is to find a pure natural monopoly, today natural monopolies are partly owned by private companies and persons.

In the USA natural monopolies operate in different areas of economy and that makes them different from Russian or British. At the same the USA were the first to elaborate antitrust code and in 1890 Antirist act was signed into law. This act vested government officials with an authority to investigate, seek and judge cases where the provisions of the act can be violated. The initial goal was to advocate the right of people to consume products at reasonable prices through market competition.

According to the act Уevery person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanorЕФ. However we can cite examples of the enterprises that immune from antitrust code. Usually government itself regulates these monopolies and set reasonable prices for the services that the company charges.

Sometimes natural monopoly can concentrate the whole industry. ItТs essential when the product or service is limited to a degree when itТs impossible to get profit without large monopolistic structure.


VI. ѕрочтите абзац 2 и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:


What is the initial goal of the antitrust act?

 онтрольна€ работа є3

¬ариант 1


I. ѕереведите письменно существительные (1 - 10). ¬ыберите определени€ (a Ц j), соответствующие существительным.


1) agreement a) an amount of money that must be paid

2) reduction b) a person, bank, or company that you owe money to

3) creditor c) the amount of money that something is worth

4) value d) a decrease in the size, price or amount of smth.

5) loan e) an arrangement or promise to do something made by two or more people, companies, organizations, etc.

6) payment f) an amount of money that you borrow from a bank

7) investor g) the money that is available to an organization or person

8) cut h) help, such as money or food, given by an organization or government to a country or people in a difficult situation

9) aid i) a reduction in the size or amount of something

10) budget j) someone who gives money to a company, business or bank in order to get a profit.


«анесите свои ответы в таблицу:


II. ¬ставьте в каждое предложение подход€щее по смыслу пропущенное слово:

market leader, rules, delivery, online shopping, department, boost

1) Many people use the web for _________ or banking.

2) In formal situations itТs a good idea to follow standard _________ when making new contacts.

3) A company that has the biggest sales or the best selling product in the market is the _______.

4) The company hopes that its new strategy will give sales a _________.

5) Some retailers have found it difficult to guarantee _________ times: goods may arrive late.

6) A ________ is a part of company where people do a particular kind of work.


III. a) ¬ыполните  ќѕ– є 3, 5.

B) ¬ следующих предложени€х подчеркните глагол-сказуемое, определите его видовременную форму и залог. ѕереведите предложени€ на русский €зык.


1. The market for digital cameras was researched last year and the findings are reported in the Survey.

2. Prices have fallen in the food business, because of advances in distribution technology.

3. The car business has a serious problem: it is producing too many cars.


IV. a) ¬ыполните  ќѕ– є 1.

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