Answer the following questions. 2. What constituents does fresh aloe vera contain?

1. What is aloe vera?

2. What constituents does fresh aloe vera contain?

3. How can we use the leaves of aloe vera?

4. For what purpose does a tea made from aloe vera serve to?

5. What may topical application of aloe vera be effective for?

6. What activities have aloe vera extracts?

7. For the treatment of what disorders is aloe used externally?

8. Is aloe vera used internally to combat most digestive problems? Name them.

9. Is aloe used only in the pharmaceutical industry?

10. What can you say about the effectiveness of aloe?

3. Complete the sentences:

1. The aloe plant is native to....

2. Fresh aloe vera contains many constituents, including....

3. Leaves of aloe vera are used to treat....

4. Aloe is used externally for the treatment of....

5. Aloe is used internally to treat....

6. This herb is one of the main attractions of....



. Lead-in

1. Read the words, then match them to the meaning of their prefixes from the list below:

a) against, opposite to anti-, contra-;

b) under, not enough, a small part of smth -sub.

Antibiotic, subculture, anticancer, contradiction, antidote, subgroup, antihistamine, subdivision, antitoxin, contraposition, antiseptic, substernal, antiparticle, antisocial, subconscious, contraindication, contraception, subspecies, contraceptive, subnormal, contradistinction, antibody, substructure.

Learn the following words.

to synthesize ;

to dispense - , ();

to exert - ;

to destroy ;

removal ;

interaction ;

subdivision ;

harmful ;

chemotherapy - ;

idiosyncrasy - , , ;

predictable ;

to require ;

antidote ;

caution - , ;

to eliminate ;

alopecia - , ;

complication ;

jaundice .

3. Match the definition with its term.

1. treatment of illness using chemicals: usually refers to treatment of infectious diseases, cancer or mental illnesses a. antidote
2. an agent that is given to counteract an unwanted effect of drugs b. drugs
3. the study of the interaction of drugs and cells or subcellular organelles such as DNA, RNA or enzymes c. chemotherapy
4. harmful and dangerous complications which may arise from the use of drugs d. toxicology
5. the study of drugs, their nature, origin and effect on living organisms e. molecular pharmacology
6. chemical substances used as medicines in the treatment of diseases f. drug toxicity
7. the study of harmful substances and their effect on living organisms g. pharmacology


4. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. The professor has told us that the properties and reactions of drugs especially with relation to their therapeutic value are called toxicology.

2. Picrotoxin is a poisonous bitter crystalline stimulant and a convulsive substance obtained from the berry of a Southeast Asian vine used intravenously as an antidote for barbiturate poisoning.

3. Pharmacy is a place where medicines are prepared, given out, dispensed, stored and sold.

4. To excrete means to separate and eliminate or discharge (waste) from the blood, tissues, or organs.

5. Pharmacokinetics is the characteristic interactions of a drug and the body in terms of its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

6. Ascomycete is any of a group (as the class Ascomycetes or the subdivision Ascomycotina) of higher fungi (as yeasts or molds).

II. Reading


Drugs are chemical substances used in medicine in the treatment of diseases. These chemical substances can come from many different sources. Drugs are obtained from various parts of plants, such as the roots, leaves, and fruit. Examples of such drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant), and antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin (from plants called molds). Drugs can also be obtained from animals; for example, hormones are secretions from the glands of animals. Drugs can be made from chemical substances which are synthesized in the laboratory. Anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate and prednisone, are examples of laboratory-synthesized drugs. Some drugs are contained in food substances; these drugs are called vitamins. Drugs are dispensed and stored in an area known as a pharmacy.

The field of medicine which studies drugs, their nature, origin, and effect in the body is called pharmacology. Pharmacology is a large medical specialty and contains many subdivisions of study, including pharmacodynamics, molecular pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, chemotherapy, toxicology and others.



Pharmacodynamics involves the study of how drugs exert their effects in the body. Scientists interested in pharmacodymanics study the processes of drug absorption (how drugs pass into the bloodstream), metabolism (changes drugs undergo within the body) and excretion (removal of the drug from the body).

Molecular pharmacology concerns the study of the interaction of drugs and cells or subcellular entities, such as DNA, RNA, or enzymes. These studies provide important information about the mechanism of action of the drug.

Clinical pharmacology is a medical field of medication effect on humans.

Pharmacogenetics deals with clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to different responses to drugs.

Chemotherapy is the subdivision of pharmacology, which studies drugs that are capable of destroying microorganisms, parasites, and cells within the body without destroying the body itself. Chemotherapy includes treatment of infectious diseases, mental illnesses, and cancer.

Toxicology is the study of harmful chemicals and their dangerous effects on the body. Toxicology includes the study of the potentially harmful effects of any drug on the body; any drug, if given in high enough doses, can have harmful actions on the body. Toxicological studies in animals are required by law before new drugs can be tested in individuals. A toxicologist is also interested in finding proper antidotes to these harmful effects. Antidotes are substances given to neutralize unwanted effects of drugs.

Drug toxicity refers to the poisonous and potentially dangerous effects of some drugs. Idiosyncrasy is an example of an unpredictable type of drug toxicity. Other types of drug toxicity are more predictable and based on the dosage of the drug given. If the dosage of certain drugs is increased, unfavorable effects may be produced. Physicians are trained to be aware of the potential toxic effects of all drugs they prescribe and must be cautious with their use.

Side effects are toxic effects which routinely result from the use of a drug. They often occur with the usual therapeutic dosage of a drug and are usually tolerable. For example, nausea, vomiting, and alopecia are common side effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat cancer.

Contraindications are the factors in the patient's condition which make the use of a drug dangerous. Among the most dangerous toxic complications of drug usage are blood dyscrasias (blood diseases) such as aplastic anemia and leukopenia, cataract formation (eye disorder), cholestatic jaundice (biliary obstruction leading to yellow discoloration of skin), neuropathy, collagen disorders (connective tissue damage such as arthritis), and photosensitivity (abnormal sensitivity to light).

III. Language development


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