Match the definition with words

a) Virus ____the simplest and smallest forms of plant life
b) Bacteria ____the act of protecting somebody/something from an attack
c) Vaccine ____a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight diseases
d) Defense ____a living thing, too small to be seen with out a microscope; causes infectious diseases
e) An antibody ____a substance that is put into lood and protects the body from diseases



Replace the italicized parts of the sentences with equivalents from the text.

1. They are too little to observe them.

2. You listen to music in the evening.

3. It can defend your body.

4. Doing exercises is necessary for everybody.

5. Fire ruins and destroys the whole house.

6. The aim of this course-paper is to analyse the book.

III. Read and translate the text.


Think about the last time you were sick. How did you feel? Being sick is not fun. Sometimes you have to stay in bed. You may not want to eat. You may not be able to play with your friends. Very small living organisms are all around you right now. They are so small that you need a microscope to see them. These very small living organisms are called germs. Germs are in the air. Germs are on your desk. Germs are even inside your body.

Germs can cause diseases. A disease is a sickness. Different germs cause different kinds of diseases.

There are many kinds of germs. Bacteria are one-celled germs. Some bacteria may make you sick. A sore throat may be caused by a type of bacteria. Not all bacteria make you sick.

The cells of bacteria can have three shapes.

A virus is the smallest kind of germs. It grows inside the cells of other living things. A virus can make you sick. Some viruses cause colds, flu, and other diseases.

Germs Live in Your Body

Your body is a warm place, in which germs can live. Your body has food for them. It also has water for them. Germs need warmth, food, and water. Most of germs can grow where there is warmth, food, and water.

Your body kills most of the germs that grow inside it. Sometimes it cannot kill enough of germs. When too many germs begin to grow, you become sick. Your body may need help to fight the germs. Medicine kills some kinds of germs.



Suppose you are at a football game. You hear people yell "Defense!". They want their team to defend their goal. To defense means to protect or guard. The team without the ball tries to stop the other team from scoring. They protect their goal. Your body has ways of protecting itself from germs.

Your skin is one kind of defense. It can stop germs from entering your body. If the skin is cut or broken, germs can enter your body. Keeping cuts clean is one way to help your skin protect your body.

Some germs do enter your body. Certain cells in your blood kill these germs. These blood cells are another defense against diseases.

Another body defense is producing antibodies' An antibody is a chemical in blood that kills germs. Each antibody kills a certain kind of germs.

Antibodies are produced by your body in two ways. Each time you are sick because of a germ, the blood makes antibodies kill that kind of germ. Antibodies are also made after you are given a vaccine. A vaccine is made of dead or weak germs that cause your blood to produce antibodies. These antibodies kill any of those germs that may enter your body.

You can also help protect your body from diseases. Wash your hands with soap and water after you use a toilet. Do not get too close to people who are sick. Have your doctor give you checkups.



IV. Language development.

1. Are the sentences true or false? Correct false statements.

1. Small living things are called germs.

2. Germs can't be a reason for disease.

3. There are only two kinds of germs.

4. Germs need warmth, food, and water.

5. Medicine kill some kinds of germs.

6. Skin can protect you from diseases.

7. All cells kill germs.

8. An antibody can't protect your body from diseases.

9. Your body produces antibodies.

10. A person by himself can't defend himself from diseases.

Answer the questions.

1. Where might germs be found?

2. What is a disease?

3. What germs can cause a disease?

4. What happens to most germs inside the body?

5. How can germs enter the body through skin?

6. What is an antibody?

7. What produces antibodies?

8. What is a vaccine?

9. How can germs be killed?

10. How can you defend yourself from germs and diseases?

V. Speaking


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